Chapter 1

Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass; the physical material of the university element A substance consisting of atoms of the same atomic number. Historically defined as a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means. atom the smallest representative particle of an element molecule a chemical combination of two or … Continue reading "Chapter 1"

Chapter 2

Describe the methodology of “strong inference”. (1) Devise alternative hypotheses(2) Devise an experiment, with alternative possible outcomes, each of whichwill, as nearly as possible, exclude one or more of the hypotheses(3) Carry out the experiment to get a clean result(4) Go to (1) In what ways are models useful to science? Models are useful to … Continue reading "Chapter 2"

Chapter 1

Matter Anything that has mass and occupies space Chemistry Is the study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes Organic chemistry Study of chemicals containing carbon Inorganic chemistry Study of chemicals, in general, do not contain carbon Biochemistry The study of processes that take place in organisms Analytical chemistry The area … Continue reading "Chapter 1"

Chapter 1

What are the 10 naturally occuring atoms that is bonded with more than one atom. O2 O3 N2 H2 F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 S8 P4 Element  one of a class of substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances bychemical means. See also chart under periodic table. compound? composed of two or more parts, elements, or ingredients: Soap is a compound substance Homogeneous Mixture      any combination of substances that has uniform composition and properties;  a mixturethat is uniform throughout   Heterogenous Mixture   any combination of substances that does not have uniform composition and properties;a mixture of physically distinct substances with different properties Physical change vs chemical change The difference between a physical reaction and a chemical reaction … Continue reading "Chapter 1"

Chapter 1

Law of Conservation The total mass remains constant during a chemical change Chemical reaction that illustrates Law of Conservation Mercury + oxygen yields mercury || oxide Solids Form of matter characterized by rigidity; relatively incompressible and has fixed shape and volumeEx. Metal Liquids Form of matter that is a relatively incompressible fluid; a liquid has … Continue reading "Chapter 1"

Chapter 1

Law of Conservation The total mass remains constant during a chemical change or a chemical reaction. Example of Law of Conservation When you burn a piece of paper the paper turns into ash, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. However the mass of those combined elements would equal the mass of the original paper. Chemical Reaction … Continue reading "Chapter 1"

Chapter 1

What is matter? Anything that takes up space (has volume) and has mass. What is volume? The amount of space taken up by a subtance. 1 liter equals.. 1.057 quarts Cubic centimeter (cc) is the same volume as … Milliliter (mL). Milliliter (mL) is the same volume as… Cubic centimeter (cc) What is mass? The … Continue reading "Chapter 1"

Chapter 1

Celsius temperature scale A temperature scale on which water has a freezing poing of 0oC and has a boiling point of 100oC   centimeter (cm) A unit of length in the metric system; there are 2.54 cm in 1 inch Conversion Factor A ratio in which the numerator and denominator are quantities from an equality … Continue reading "Chapter 1"

Chapter 1

Chemistry The study of matter, its transformations and how it behaves Matter any physical substance that occupies space and has mass Macroscopic  The length scale on which objects can be measured and observed by the naked eye Atomic Scale nanoscale; molecular scale-objects that are smaller than those that can be seen by the naked eye … Continue reading "Chapter 1"

Chapter 1

what is matter? anything that has mass and takes up space what is mass? the measure of the amount of matter in a substance List the specialties of chemistry organic, inorganic, physical, analytical, biochemistry, and theoretical what is organic chemistry? the study of carbon-containing compounds what is inorganic chemistry? the study of substances that do … Continue reading "Chapter 1"

Chapter 1:

Atom the samllest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element change of state a physical change of a substance from one state to another chemical change a change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances chemical property the ability of a substance to undergo a change that … Continue reading "Chapter 1:"

Chapter 11

Chemical Equation a representation of a chemical reaction; the formulas reactants (on the left) are connected by an arrow with the formulas of the products (on the right) Skeleton Equation a chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amounts of the reactants and products. Catalyst a substance that speed up the reaction but is … Continue reading "Chapter 11"

Chapter 11

mole measures the amount of a substance Avogadro’s number 6.022 x 1023 representative particles molar mass the mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance percent composition the percent by mass of each element in a compound empirical formula the formula with the smallest whole number mole ratio of the elements molecular formula … Continue reading "Chapter 11"

Chapter 11

how many bonds does carbon always make? four what is the exception to carbon always making four bonds? co two reasons carbon is so special: can form 4 covalent bonds and bonds with other carbon atoms in a straight chain or ring what kind of bonds do organic molecules form? covalent or polar-covalent what kind … Continue reading "Chapter 11"

Chapter 11

Pressure is defined as the force per unit area on a surface Newton is the force that will increase the speed of a one-kilogram mass by one meter per second each sceond that the force is applied Barometer is a device used to measure atmospheric pressure Millimeters of Mercury the common unit of pressure Atmosphere of … Continue reading "Chapter 11"

Chapter 11 notes

1atm is equal to how many mmHg and how much torr? 1atm = 760mmHg = 760 torr If a bicycle tire has a pressure of 72psi how many atmospheres would this be? (1atm = 14.7psi) 72psi x (1atm/14.7psi) = 4.9atm The atmospheric pressure in San Fransisco on a certain day was 732mmHg. What was the … Continue reading "Chapter 11 notes"

Chapter 11 and 12

temperature             H20 molecules move more rapidly in _____ water than in _____ water  Measure of the random particles in a substance              warm / cold Thermometers measure _______     Volume increases or decreases according to ______ (same word)  Temperature Thermochemistry deals with ____ … Continue reading "Chapter 11 and 12"

Chapter 11/12

What is a solution made of? Solute + Solvent Solute: The chemical being dissolved Solvent: The “base substance,” Majority component. *Note: Water is almost always the solvent, regardless of how much is being put in.* Molarity M – Moles of solute/Liters of solution Molality m – moles of solute/kg of solvent Density of solution mass … Continue reading "Chapter 11/12"

Chapter 10 Section 10-5

calorie the amount of energy (heat) required to raise thetemperature of one gram of water by one Celsius degree.1000 cal = 1 Caljoule: the SI unit.1 cal = 4.184 J Specific Heat Capacity The amount of energy required to changethe temperature of one gram of a substance by one Celsius degree.· Known as Specific Heat· … Continue reading "Chapter 10 Section 10-5"

Chapter 10 Section 10-2

Temperature A measure of the random motions of the components of a substance Heat A flow of energy due to a temperature difference Calculating the change in temperature Delta T Finding the change in temperature Final temp – Initial temp

Chapter 10

kinetic-molecular theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion ideal gas a hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory (don’t actually exist) elastic collision one in which there is no net loss of total kinetic energy gas expansion gasses do not have definite shape or … Continue reading "Chapter 10"

Chapter 10

position An objects location. reference point A location in which another location is compared. motion A change of position over time. speed A measure of how fast something moves through a particular distance over a definite time period. Is distance divided by time. velocity A speed in a specific direction. vector A quantity that has … Continue reading "Chapter 10"

Chapter 10

Arrhenius According to ________ acid (put into water) H+ions (one proton)per mole Arrhenius Bases according to _______ if you put a base in water it releases the OH-1 ion NaOH –> Na+ + OH_ 1948 Brousted and Lowry According to _______ acids releases H+ 1948 Brousted and Lowry According to _______ a base abosorbs(accepts) H+ … Continue reading "Chapter 10"

Chapter 10

Organic Compounds Carbon + Hydrogen and nonmetallic elements (O,S,N,Cl)   Nonpolar molecules Weak Attractions, covalent bonds Low mp/bp Typically insoluble in water Burn vigorously in air   Inorganic Compounds Most metals and nonmetals (Na,Cl) Mostly ionic, ionic bonding High mp/bp Usually soluble in water Most do not burn in air Hydrocarbons Consist of only hydrogen … Continue reading "Chapter 10"

Chapter 10

What are the characteristics of synthesis? 2 elements for reactants and 1 compound for the product Releases energy What do reactions between a metal oxide and water produce? Metal hydroxides (bases)   What do reactions between a nonmetal oxide and water produce? An acid What happens to H2CO3 upon formation?   It immediately decomposes into … Continue reading "Chapter 10"

Chapter 10

molecular dipoles center of mass for a molecule dipole moment a quantity to  measure net molecular polarity   formula µ= Q x r Q: magnitude of charge at either end r: distance between the charges Debeyes unit used when referring to dipole moment   1 D= 3.336 x 10-30 coulomb meters (conversions may be necessary) ionic … Continue reading "Chapter 10"

Chapter 10

Kinectic-Molecular Theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion Ideal Gas is a hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory. Elastic Collision is one in which there is no net loss of total kinetic energy Diffusion spontaneous micing of the paritcles of two substances … Continue reading "Chapter 10"