2013 mrs redican

What cannot be broken down or decomposed?
elements
What can be decomposed?
compounds
SOLIDS
rigid, geometric, network lattice
definite shape and definite volume
particles vibrate in fixed position
closely packed particles
strong intermolecular forces
small distance between particles
LIQUIDS
definite volume , no definite shape
has surface tension and viscosity
particles can flow past one another
GASES
spreads to fill the entire container
no definite shape no definite volume
random, constant , straight-line motion
weak intermolecular forces
INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
forces between molecules
solids have strong forces, and gases have weak forces
what is AVERAGE KINETIC ENERGY?
energy of particle motion
TEMPERATURE
when does potential energy change?
changes during a phase change
energy of how the particles are spread out
what are SUBSTANCES?
elements and compounds
only one type of particle
MIXTURES
a combinations of elements and/or compounds
PRESSURE-VOLUME OF GASES
[image]
KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF GASES
* gases move in constant random straight line motion
* gases do not lose or gain energy when they collide — they have elastic collisions
*gas particles have a volume that is insignificant compared to the volume of the total gas
* average kinetic energy is temperature
* gas particles have no significant forces between them
IDEAL GASES
high temperature — move very fast
low pressure — very far apart
MELTING

solid -liquid equilibrium

(s)–>(l)

VOLUME -TEMPERATURE OF GASES
[image]
FREEZING

solid-liquid equilibrium

(l)–>(s)

BOILING /EVAPORATION

VAPORIZATION

liquid-gas equilibrium

(l)–>(g)

CONDENSATION

liquid-gas equilibrium

(g) –> (l)

SUBLIMATION

(s) –> (g)

like dry ice 

DEPOSITION

(g) –> (s)

like frost on your windows

PHASE CHANGES

temperature does NOT change

kinetic energy does not change

potential energy changes

TEMPERATURE CHANGES
kinetic energy changes
1 MOLE
6 x 10^23 particles
MOLAR MASS
gram formula mass
(add up the pieces using mass from the Periodic Table)
SYNTHESIS
A3 + 2B –> AB2
coming together to make one product
DECOMPOSITION
1 reactant breaking down into more than one product
AB —> A + B
SINGLE REPLACEMENT
1 element and 1 compound replacing part of each other

A + BC –> B + AC

DOUBLE REPLACEMENT
compound 1 + compound 2 replacing part of each other
ex. PbCl + K(NO3) –> KCl + Pb(NO3)
COMBUSTION
CH + O2 —> CO2 + H20
PHYSICAL CHANGES
boiling, melting, freezing, condensation, evaporation, solidifcation,sublimation, deposition
5 types of CHEMICAL REACTIONS
synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, combustion
ATOM
the simplest unit of an element
Which subatomic particles have mass?
protons and neutrons
a mass of 1 amu each
Which subatomic particle has almost no mass and is very small?
electrons
According to the wave mechanical model of the atom, where are electrons located?
orbitals , regions of high probability of finding an e-
VALENCE ELECTRONS
electrons in the outermost shell (the last number in the e- configuration)
ISOTOPES
same protons and atomic number and symbol
different mass number and different numbers of NEUTRONS
How do we calculate atomic mass?
( THIS IS NOT MASS NUMBER!!)
mass multiply by abundance (in decimal percent , to the left, to the left like Beyonce 🙂 The abundance decimal point gets moved NOT the mass.
C-12 mass 12.01 abundance 98.7%
(12×0.987) + …
ORBITALS
the most likely region to find an electron
(areas of high probability)
QUANTUM LEAP
1) e- absorb energy
2) go to a higher level “excited state” (unstable)
3) go to a lower level
4) release a photon of light (bright line atomic spectra)
MASS NUMBER
number of protons + number of neutrons (added up)
ATOMIC NUMBER
number of protons
can be found on the periodic table
ATOM ELECTRICALLY NETURAL
because # of protons = # of electrons
EXCITED STATE
electron jumped up to a higher energy shell
BRIGHT LINE ATOMIC SPECTRA
unique “fingerprint” that can identify an element
produced when electron goes to a lower energy level and releases photon of light
ALPHA
positive and has the most mass
weakest power
GAMMA
most penetrating power
pure energy
no mass , no charge
FISSION
nuclear power
U + n –> Ba + Kr + 3 n + energy
to split apart
FUSION
H + H –> He + energy
to combine
NATURAL TRANSMUTATION
one element decaying and becoming a new element

X –>

ARTIFICIAL TRANSMUTATION
one element and a particle becoming a new element

X + beta/gamma/alpha —>

USES OF RADIOISOTOPES
I-131 thyroid treatment
Co-60 cancer
C-14 date organic material
U-238 date rocks
PROS and CONS NUCLEAR POWER
pros + cheap, clean, less pollution

cons – radioactive waste, possible breakdown and radiation leaks/sickness

HALF_LIFE
the time it takes for a sample size to decay with only half remaining
half-life is a steady, constant rate
AVOGADRO’S LAW
gases at the same temp and pressure, will have equal volume and equal number of molecules
MOLAR RATIOS
Given a balanced equation, if the problem goes from moles to moles – –use molar ratios to solve
CONSERVATION OF MASS
mass and charge are both conserved

Given a balanced equation
if a problem is about grams and grams – – use conservation of mass to add/subtract to find the answer

VALENCE ELECTRONS
electrons in the outermost shell
the last number in an electron configuration
SIMILAR ELEMENTS
have same number of valence e-
same group
ACROSS A PERIOD
radii get smaller (positive nucleus pulls e- inward)
IE increases
EN increases
less metallic character
DOWN A GROUP
atomic radii get larger, more e- shells
IE decreases
EN decreases
metallic character increases
METALS
lose e-
malleable
luster/shiny
solid (except mercury)
ductile
good conductors b/c of free mobile e- (sea of e-)
hi density
*they become totally different when they react to become ionic
want to lose e
NONMETALS
dull
brittle
solids or gases (except Br)
poor conductors (no free mobile e-)
want to gain e- , high EN
IONIC BOND
metals with nonmetals
transfer of e-
high melt point
dissolve /soluble in water
conducts in water (electrolyte)
COVALENT BOND
nonmetal with nonmetal
shares e-
low melt point
POLAR covalent
shares unevenly
EN difference high
asymmetrical
soluble in water
NONPOLAR covalent
shares evenly
EN difference low or zero
symmetrical
insoluble in water
poor conductor
LEWIS DOT DIAGRAMS
dot represent valence e-
if more than one atom present, show how the electrons are transferred (if ionic) or shared (if covalent)
ENTHALPY
heat energy
ENDOTHERMIC
heat is absorbed
A + heat –> B + C
feels cool , because the rxn absorbs energy from the surroundings
heat of reaction is +
Table I
EXOTHERMIC
heat is released
A –> B + C + heat
feels warm, because the rxn releases energy to the surroundings
heat of reaction is –
Table I
ENTROPY
disorder of a system
solid is least , gases are the most
the more molecules the more disorder
Nature and SPONTANEOUS RXNS
greater disorder , more entropy
usually also exothermic, but not always
COLLISION THEORY
there must be collisions for molecules to react
there must me sufficient energy to react
there must be more stability in the products formed
REACTION RATE
if the reaction rate increases, the time it takes is less
TEMPERATURE AND RXN RATE
higher temp, more kinetic energy, more collisions, faster rxn
CONCENTRATION AND RXN RATE
more particles per volume, more collisions, faster rxn
SURFACE AREA AND RXN RATE
crushing/powder, grinding makes more surface area for more possible collisions, faster rxn
REACTIVITY OF ELEMENTS
Table J, higher is more reactive
CATALYST
creates an alternate pathway with a lower activation energy ( faster)
HEAT OF REACTION
H products – H reactants
ACTIVATION ENERGY
the minimum energy required for the rxn to occur
ACID
H+ donor
H…, usually
sour
reacts with metals
pH below 7
BASE
H+ acceptor
…OH, usually
bitter
slippery
pH above 7
NEUTRALIZATION
Acid + Base —> ionic salt and HOH
MOLARITY
moles of solute / liter of solution
pH
goes by factors of 10
pH goes from 6 to 4
increase H+ by 10*10 = 100 times more acidic
pH goes from 11 to 8
decrease in H+ 10^3 = 1000 less basic (going closer to neutral)
1/1000 of H+
LEO
lose electrons oxidation
oxidation # goes up
e- are on the product side
oxidized
reducing agent
GER
gain e- reduction
e- are on the reactant side
oxidation # goes down
reduced
oxidizing agent
flow of e-
always anode to cathode
AN OX RED CAT
anode is where oxidation occurs
cathode is where reduction occurs
voltaic cell vs electrolytic
voltaic requires a salt bridge that lets ions flow
voltaic, no battery , so it is spontaneous
voltaic : chemical energy converted to electrical

electrolytic requires a battery, not spontaneous
electrolytic : electrical energy converts to chemical energy

solute vs solvent
solute gets dissolved
solvent does the dissolving
HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES
different particles not evenly spread out
HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES
Solutions
if in water, aqueous
SEPARATE BY SIZE
LIKE HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES
filtration (like sand and water)
SEPARATE INKS DYES, COLORS
chromatography
SEPARATE BY BOILING POINT
distillation
like crude oil (fractional distillation)
SEPARATE BY EVAPORATION
dissolved solids in water/liquids

like salt water

ADDING MORE PARTICLES MAKE THE
freezing point go down
boiling point go up
vapor pressure go down
osmotic pressure go up
SUPERSATURATED, SATURATED, UNSATURATED
supersaturated= above the accepted value,
saturated = equal to the accepted value
unsaturated = less than the accepted value
PRECIPITATE
Solid in solution,
occurs when something is insoluble
What has a fixed ratio or proportion?
compounds
If a substance has a high boiling point what kind of intermolecular forces does it have?
Conversely, low boiling point?
strong or high

Low boiling point means lower intermolecular forces

Which two subatomic particles have the same quantity of charge but opposite signs?
proton +1, and electron -1
Which subatomic particle holds the nucleus together?
neutrons
Which subatomic particle is equal to the atomic number?
protons only
Which two subatomic particles have the same quantity of charge but opposite signs?
proton +1, and electron -1
Which subatomic particle holds the nucleus together?
neutrons
Which subatomic particle is equal to the atomic number?
protons only
Which subatomic particle has no charge?
neutron
Which subatomic particle has a charge of -1?
electron
What does NOT change during excited state?
nucleus
How do we calculate atomic mass of isotopes?
take the weighted average of all the naturally occurring isotopes
Mass into lots of energy
nuclear power
chemical energy into electrical
voltaic cell
electrical energy into chemical energy
electrolytic cell
How do the boiling points of water and a solution compare?
the solution will have a higher boiling point and lower freezing point
(boiling pt elevation and freezing pt depression)
How are C graphite and C diamond different?
different structures so different properties
How are allotropes different?
different structures and different properties
What makes something organic?
Carbon
What elements are in a hydrocarbon?
H and C only
What is a saturated molecule?
all single bonds = alkanes
What is an unsaturated molecule?
contains at least 1 multiple bond (double or triple)
-COO-
ketone
-COOH
organic acid
What reaction produces polymers?
polymerization
What reaction produces esters?
esterification
What reaction produces alcohol?
fermentation
CH4 + Cl2 ==> CH3Cl + HCl
substitution
What are esters made from?
alcohol + organic acid
What element can make long chains, rings and networks?
carbon
How many electrons are shared in a triple bond?
6 e- or 3 pairs of e-
What is equilibrium?
when forward and reverse reaction rates are equal and the concentration of the reactants and the products remains constant
What is Le Chatelier’s Principle?
that a system in equilibrium , when disturbed, will shift and return to equilibrium
What type of bonding gives water an unusually high boiling point?
hydrogen bonding
What are the 3 types of hydrogen bonds?
H-N H-O H-F
because of high EN
A system in equilibrium, when pressure is increased will shift towards ________
the side with less moles of gas
A system in equilibrium, when pressure is decreased will shift towards ________
the side with more moles of gas
x

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