Ch.11,13,14.

Saturated
Crystallization and solution occuring at equal rates is saturated.
Unsaturated
Less solute present then what is needed to saturate the solution
Supersaturated
When concentrations are higher then equilibrium concentrations
Critical Pressure
the pressure required to bring about the liquification at critical temperature
Critical temperature
Is the highest temperature at which a distinct liquid phase can form.
Surface Tension
Is the energy required to increase the surface area by a unit amount.
Viscosity
The resistance of liquid to flow
Order of strength of Molecular Forces.

1. Hydrogen Bonding

2. Ordinary Ionic or covalent Bonds

3. Ion-Dipole

4. Dipole-Dipole

5. London Dispersion

Hydrogen Bonding
Attraction between a hydrogen atom in a polar bond and electron pair on another ion. Usually Flourine, oxygen, and Nitrogen. Strongest Bond, effects boiling and freezing
Polarizability
The ease with which the electron distribution in a molecule is distorted. The greater the polarizability, more easily distorted to have temporary dipole. Larger molecules; larger polarizability b/c more electrons
London Dispersion Force
Temporary Dipole on one atom can induce similar temporary dipole on another; causes atoms to attract. They have to be close together.
Dipole-Dipole Force
Neutral polar molecules attracted via negative to positive end and vice versa. Need to be close together, weaker then ion dipole
Ion-Dipole Force
Exists between and ion and a partial charge at the end of a polar molecule. Solutions of ionic substances in polar liquids.
Solvation
Interaction of solute and solvent
Hydration
When the solvent is water
Entropy
The degree of randomness or disorder
Solubility
The amount of solute needed to form a saturated solution at any particular temperature
Miscible
“like dissolves like”; liquids that mix in all proportions
Immiscible
Those solute that do not dissolve significantly in one another
Henry’s Law
Solubility of gas=K(pressure of gas)
Colligative Property
A physcial property of a solution that depends on the concentration of solute particules present, regardless of the nature of the solute.
Colloids
particles that are large enough on a molecular scale but still small enough to remain suspended in a solvent system
Tyndall Effect
scattering of light by colliods