Chapter 6 Test Review

What is the mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that bind the atoms together?
Chemical bond
Why do atoms bond together?
To stabilize the valence shell and to decrease energy
What type of bond results from the electrical attraction between charged atoms?
Ionic bond
What will be the difference in electronegativiy between the atoms involved in an ionic bond?
1.7 or greater
What is the term given to the positive ion?
Cation
What is the term given to the negative ion?
Anion
What type of bond results from the sharing of electrons?
Covalent
What are the two types of covalent bonds?
Polar and nonpolar
What type of covalent bond shares the electrons equally?
Nonpolar
What type of covalent bond does not share the electrons equally?
Polar
What is the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms involved in a nonpolar covalent bond?
0-.3
What is the difference in electronegativity between two atoms in a polar covalent bond?
.3-1.7
What is the term used to describe the ability of an atom to attract electrons?
Electronegativity
What is the neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds?
Molecule
Describe the importance of a chemical formula
Chemical formulas indicate the relative numbers of atoms in each chemical compound
What types of atoms are bonding to form a molecule?
Nonmetal and nonmetal
How many diatomic atoms are there? What are the names of them?
7- H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2
Describe the formation of a covalent bond
Two nonmetals share electrons to fill both of their outermost energy levels
As bond length decreases in covalent bond, what happens to the strength (bond energy)
It increases because the shorter the bond length, the harder it is to break
What is the octet rule?
Chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom has an octet of electrons in their highest energy level
Give 4 exceptions of the octet rule
Beryllium-4 valence
Boron-6 valence
Phosphorus-10 valence
Sulfur-12 valence
Hydrogen-2 valence
What is the name given to the unshared pair of electrons in a lewis structure?
Lone pair
What is the difference between a lewis structure and a structural formula?
Lewis structures show electron dot pairs while structural formulas show don’t show unshared pairs
What type of covalent bond involves the sharing of 1 pair of electrons? 2 pairs? 3 pairs?
Single. Double. Triple.
What is a formula unit?
The simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound’s formula can be established
What is the relationship between ionic bond strength and lattice energy?
Bond strength increases as lattice energy becomes more negative
NaCl and Al2O3 are both examples of (ionic/covalent) bonds
Ionic bonds
(ionic/covalent) bonds have low melting and boiling points
covalent
(ionic/covalent) bonds are conductors in water
ionic
(ionic/covalent) bonds are a network of + and – ions
ionic
(ionic/covalent) bonds are hard and brittle solids
ionic
(ionic/covalent) bonds are non-conductors in water
covalent
H2O and CO2 are examples of (ionic/covalent) bonds
covalent
What is a polyatomic ion?
A charged group of covalently bonded atoms
What is the term used to describe the electrons of metals?
Delocalized
What does “delocalized” mean?
Electrons do not belong to any one atom
Because they don’t belong to any one atom, what phrase describes a metal’s electrons?
Sea of electrons
What are some properties of metals?
High electrical and thermal conductivity, luster, malleable, and ductile
Why do metals have luster?
Metals absorb light and re-radiate this light in a frequency similar to the absorbed frequency
What is the relationship between enthalpy of vaporization and the bond strength of metals?
The stronger the bond, the greater the enthalpy of vaporization
Molecular shape: linear
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
180 degrees, 2, 0.
Molecular shape: trigonal planar
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
120 degrees, 3, 0.
Molecular shape bent or angular:
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
<120 degrees, 2, 1.
Molecular shape tetraheadral:
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
109.5 degrees, 4, 0.
Molecular shape trigonal pyramidal:
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
107 degrees, 3, 1.
Molecular shape bent or angular with 2 lone pairs:
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
104.5 degrees, 2, 2.
Molecular shape trigonal bipyramidal:
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
90 and 120 degrees, 5, 0.
Molecular shape octaheadral:
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
90 degrees, 6, 0.
What does V.S.E.P.R. stand for?
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
What is a hybrid orbital?
Orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atoms
What are the three types of intermolecular forces?
Dipole-dipole- two polar molecules
Hydrogen bonding-occurs between H and F, O, or N
London dispersion-two nonpolar molecules
What is isomerism?
Substances that have the same molecular formula as another substance but differ in structure
Name four types of isomers
Structural, geometric, positional, functional
What happens in structural isomers?
The carbon chain is altered
What happens in geometric isomers?
They differ in the arrangement around double bonds
What happens in positional isomers?
They differ in position of double bond or atom other than C or H
What happens in functional isomers?
An element other than C or H is bonded in a different way
The hybrid sp:
Name the # of orbitals produced, bond angle, and basic shapes
2, 180 degrees, linear
The hybrid sp2:
Name the # of orbitals produced, bond angle, and basic shapes
3, 120 degrees, trigonal planar.
sp3 hybrid:
Name the # of orbitals produced, bond angle, and basic shapes
4, 109.5 degrees, tetraheadral
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