Chem 171 Midterm 2

Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction
between sodium hydride and water
NaH + H20 -> NaOH + H2
(hydrides hydrolyze to give hydrogen and hydroxides)
Write a balanced chemical equation for the formation of synthesis gas
CH4 + H20 -> CO + 3H2
(synthesis gas is a mixture of CO and H2)
Write a balanced chemical equation for the hydrogenation of ethene, H2C=CH2, and give the oxidation number of the carbon atoms in the reactant and product;
CH2=CH2 + H2 -Ni-> CH3-CH3
(double bonds hydrogenate to give single bonds)
Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of magnesium with hydrochloric acid
Mg + 2HCl -> MgCl2 + H2
(metals react with acid to give hydrogen)
Identify the products and write a balanced equation for
the reaction of hydrogen with nitrogen
N2 + 3H2 -> 2NH3
(oxidize N2)
Identify the products and write a balanced equation for
the reaction of hydrogen with fluorine
H2 + F2 -> 2HF
(reduce F2)
Identify the products and write a balanced equation for
the reaction of hydrogen with cesium
2Cs + H2 -> 2CsH
(oxidize Cs to Cs+)
Identify the products and write a balanced equation for
the reaction of hydrogen with copper(II) ions
H2 + Cu2+ > 2Cu + 2H+
(reduce Cu2+ to metal)
Write the chemical equation for the reaction between cesium and oxygen (cesium reacts with oxygen in the same way as potassium)
Cs + O2 > CsO2
(gives cesium superoxide)
Write the chemical equation for the reaction between
sodium oxide and water
Na2O + H2O > 2NaOH
(gives sodium hydroxide)
Write the chemical equation for the reaction between lithium and hydrochloric acid
2Li + 2HCl > 2LiCl + H2
(alkali metal reacts with water to give hydrogen)
Write the chemical equation for the reaction between cesium and iodine
2Cs + I2 > 2CsI
(similar to sodium plus chlorine)
Predict the products of each of the following reactions
and then balance each equation:
(a) Mg(s)  Br2(l) ->
Mg + Br2 > MgBr2
(alkaline earth reacts with halogen)
Predict the products of each of the following reactions
and then balance each equation:
(b) BaO(s)  Al(s) ->
3BaO + 2Al > Al2O3 + 3Ba
(similar to thermite)
Predict the products of each of the following reactions
and then balance each equation:
(c) CaO(s)  SiO2(s) ->
CaO + SiO2 > CaSiO3
(formation of silicates)
Al2O3 + OH- ->
Al2O3 + OH- + 3H2O -> 2Al(OH)4-
Al2O3(s)  H3O(aq)  H2O(l) ->
Al2O3 + 6H3O+ + 3H2O > 2Al(H2O)6
3+
B(s)  NH3(g) S ->
2B + 2NH3 > 2BN + 3H2
The diatomic molecule BF can be obtained by the
reaction between BF3 and B at a high temperature and low
pressure. (a) Determine the electron configuration of the
molecule in terms of the occupied molecular orbitals and
calculate the bond order.
Assuming that BF will display the same molecular orbital energy level order as 2
N , the
ground-state electron configuration will be

(?1s )2 (?1s
* )2 (?2s )2 (?2s
* )2 (?2 p )4 (?2 p )2 ;
BO =

1 2 (10 ? 4) = 3

The diatomic molecule BF can be obtained by the
reaction between BF3 and B at a high temperature and low
pressure.(b) CO is isoelectronic with BF. How
do the molecular orbitals in the two molecules differ?
(b) The molecular orbitals in CO and BF differ in shape and energy since the atoms involved in bonding have different atomic orbital energies and sizes. The orbitals of BF will
more closely resemble those of HF while those of CO will more closely resemble those of 2N
(see Chapter 4).
Identify the oxidation number of tin in the following compounds and ions: (a) Sn3(OH)42+
(a) +2
Identify the oxidation number of tin in the following compounds and ions:(b) K2SnO3
(b) +4
Identify the oxidation number of tin in the following compounds and ions:(c) K2Sn3O7
(c) +4
Balance the following skeletal equations and classify
them as acid–base or redox:
(a) CH4(g)  S8(s) S CS2(l)  H2S(g)
(a) 2CH4(g) + S8(s) > 2CS2(l) + 4H2S(g) (redox)
(b) Sn(s)  KOH(aq)  H2O(l) S K2Sn(OH)6(aq)  H2(g)
(b) Sn(s) + 2KOH(aq) + 4H2O(l) > K2Sn(OH)6(aq) + 2H2(g) (redox)
Nitrous acid reacts with hydrazine in acidic solution
to form hydrazoic acid, HN3. Write the chemical equation and
determine the mass of hydrazoic acid that can be produced
from 15.0 g of hydrazine.
HNO2 + H2NNH2 > 2H2O + HN3
15.0 g (1/32.05 g/mol) (43.04 g/mol HN3) = 20.1 g HN3
Suggest a method for preparing
sodium azide, NaN3.
N2O + 2NaNH2 >NaN3 + NaOH + NH3
my solution: NaOH + HN3 > NaN3 + H2O.
Is the production of hydrazoic acid an
oxidation or a reduction of hydrazine?
The oxidation number of nitrogen in hydrazine is -2, while in hydrazoic acid it is nominally
-1/3 so this is an oxidation process as far as hydrazine is concerned.
The common acid anhydrides of phosphorus are P4O6
and P4O10. Write the formulas of their corresponding acids
and chemical equations for the formation of the acids by the
reaction of the anhydrides with water.
P4O6 + 6H2O > 4H3PO3
P4O10 + 6H2O > 4H3PO4
Draw the Lewis structure for oleum, (HO)SO2-O-SO2(OH), prepared by treating sulfuric acid with SO3.
The formal charges are 0 on all S and O atoms
Determine the
formal charges on the sulfur and oxygen atoms (HO)SO2-O-SO2(OH)
The formal charges are 0 on all S and O atoms
What is
the oxidation number for sulfur in this compound? (HO)SO2-O-SO2(OH)
+6
Write the Lewis structure for BrF3. What is the
hybridization of the bromine atom in the molecule?
AX3E2, T-shaped, sp3d
Determine the oxidation number of the noble-gas
element in (a) XeO3; (b) XeO6
4-; (c) XeF2; (d) HXeO4-

(a) XeO3 O = -2 Xe = 6
(b) XeO64- Xe=8
(c) XeF2 Xe=2
(d) HXeO4- Xe=6
Explain why the density of vanadium (6.11 gcm3) is
significantly less than that of chromium (7.19 gcm3). Both
vanadium and chromium crystallize in a body-centered cubic
lattice.
Cr has a smaller radius than V (129 pm vs 135 pm) and a larger atomic mass (52.0 vs 50.94
g/mol)
This provides the estimate (135/129)3 (52.00/50.94) = 1.16. The observed is 1.18
Which of the elements scandium, molybdenum, and
copper is most likely to form a chloride with the formula MCl4?
Explain your answer.
In MCl4, M has an oxidation number of +4. Referring to Figure 16.6, we see that Mo is the
only element with a +4 oxidation state.
Name each of the following complex ions and determine
the oxidation number of the metal: (a) [CrCl3(NH3)2(OH2)]+
diammineaquatrichloridochromium(IV) ion
Let x = oxidation number to be determined
x(Cr) + [3 ? (?1)] = +1
x(Cr) = +1 ? (?3) = +4
Name each of the following complex ions and determine
the oxidation number of the metal:(b) [Rh(en)3)]3+
tris(ethylenediamine)rhodium(III) ion
x(Rh) + 3 ? (0) = +3
x(Rh) = +3
Name each of the following complex ions and determine
the oxidation number of the metal:[Fe(ox)(Br)4]3-
tetrabromido(oxalato)ferrate(III) ion
x(Fe) + [1 ? (?2)] + [4 ? (?1)] = ?3
x(Fe) = ? 3 ? (?6) = + 3
Name each of the following complex ions and determine
the oxidation number of the metal: [Ni(OH)(OH2)5]2+
pentaaquahydroxonickel(III) ion
x(Ni) + [5 ? (0)] ? [1 ? (?1)] = + 3
x(Ni) = + 3
Use the information in Table 17.4 to write the formula
for each of the following coordination compounds:(a) triamminediaquahydroxidochromium(II) chloride
(a) [Cr(OH)(NH3)3(H2O)2]Cl
Use the information in Table 17.4 to write the formula
for each of the following coordination compounds:(b) potassium tetracyanido-Cplatinate(II)
(b) K2[PtCN4]
Use the information in Table 17.4 to write the formula
for each of the following coordination compounds:(c) tetraaquadichloridonickel(IV) iodide
(c) [NiCl2(H2O)4]I2
Use the information in Table 17.4 to write the formula
for each of the following coordination compounds:(d) lithium tris(oxalato)cobaltate(III)
(d) Li3[Co(C2O4)3]
Use the information in Table 17.4 to write the formula
for each of the following coordination compounds:(e) sodium bromidohydroxidobis(oxalato)rhodate(III) octahydrate
(e) Na3[RhBr(OH)(C2O4)2] 8 H2O
With the help of Table 17.4, determine the coordination
number of the metal ion in each of the following complexes:(a) [PtBr2(NH3)2];
(a) 4
With the help of Table 17.4, determine the coordination
number of the metal ion in each of the following complexes:(b) [Ni(en)2I2]+
(b) 6
With the help of Table 17.4, determine the coordination
number of the metal ion in each of the following complexes:(c) [Co(ox)3]3-
(c) 6
With the help of Table 17.4, determine the coordination
number of the metal ion in each of the following complexes:(d) [Mn(CO)5]-
(d) 5
Draw an orbital energy-level diagram (like those in
Figs. 17.29 and 17.31) showing the confi guration of
d-electrons on the metal ion in each of the following complexes:
(a) [Zn(OH2)6]2; Predict the number of unpaired electrons for
each complex.
[image]
Draw an orbital energy-level diagram (like those in
Figs. 17.29 and 17.31) showing the confi guration of
d-electrons on the metal ion in each of the following complexes:
(b) [CoCl4]2 (tetrahedral). Predict the number of unpaired electrons for
each complex.
[image]
Draw an orbital energy-level diagram (like those in
Figs. 17.29 and 17.31) showing the confi guration of
d-electrons on the metal ion in each of the following complexes: (c) [Co(CN)6]3; Predict the number of unpaired electrons for each complex.
[image]
Draw an orbital energy-level diagram (like those in
Figs. 17.29 and 17.31) showing the confi guration of
d-electrons on the metal ion in each of the following complexes:
(d) [CoF6]3. Predict the number of unpaired electrons for
each complex.
[image]
what is the most abundant element in the universe?
hydrogen; it is a transparent gas under normal conditions, it can form both a cation and an anion
what is made industrially as a by-product of petroleum refining via two reactions?
hydrogen
what are the two reactions for making of hydrogen industrially as a by product of petroleum refining?
1)steam reforming (using a nickel catalyst)
CH4 + H2O –> CO + 3H2
2)water gas-shift reaction (iron/copper catalyst)
CO + H2O –> CO2 + H2
what are other sources of hydrogen production?
1) dissolve metal in acid
2)electrolysis
3)use sunlight to split water: 2H2O –>2H2 + O2 (endothermic by 400 kJ/mol) TiO2 catalysis
4) biological production (photosynthesis by algae in low sulfur environments)
Groups 1-2 form what with hydrogen?
salt-like hydrides
Groups 3-12 form what with hydrogen?
metallic hydrides, which are black, powdery, electrically conducting solids; possible hydrogen storage via M + H2 –>MH2
Groups 13-17 form what with hydrogen?
molecular hydrides, many of which are gases
what is hydrogen bonding?
compounds with a bond between hydrogen and nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine-elements with small, highly electronegative atoms-participate in this very strong intermolecular force; it is about 5% as strong as covalent bond between same types of atoms, but ten times stronger than other intermolecular interactions
what do hydrogen bonds come from?
partially from coulomb attraction between partial charges and partially from weak bonding interactions
why are hydrogen bonds important?
1) ice floats because of hydrogen bonds
2) hydrogen bonds hold DNA together
3) hydrogen bonds determine important features of protein structure
how are pure alkalis usually made?
electrolysis
(Na+) + (Cl-) –> Na + (1/2) Cl2 (g) (Downs Process)
what is NaHCO3?
baking soda (bicarbonate of soda)- reacts with weak acid to form CO2 in bread
what is NaCO3?
washing soda (provides carbonate in solution that precipitates Mg2+)
what is NaNO3 and KNO3?
oxidizing agent in black gunpowder, also used in matches
2KNO3 + 4C –> K2CO3(s) + 3CO(g) + N2(g) [produces lots of gas so explosion occurs]
how are true alkaline earth metals obtained?
by electrolysis or by reduction with aluminum in a version of the thermite process:
3BaO + 2Al –> Al2O3 + 3Ba
MgCl2 –>(Mg2+) +2(Cl-)
properties of beryllium
-metallic and nonmetallic properties
-does not react with water
-often quite poisonous
key difference between alkalis and alkali earth salts
not water soluble-most notable: CaCO3
primary uses of alkaline earths
1)Mg(OH)2 (milk of magnesia)
2) MgSO4-epsom salts-inhibit absorption of water from the intestine, results in defacation
3)quicklime (CaO), which reacts with water to give slaked lime (Ca(OH)2). This is an inexpensive base that is used for agriculture
4)Concrete (gravel plus Portland cement). Portland cement is pellets of CaO mixed with gypsum, CaSO4-2H2O
boron is mined as?
borax Na2B4O7 xH2O (x=10)
pure B can be used for…
production of stiff, light fibers that are used in plastics
boron compounds include…
1) BF3BCl3 (boron triahalide) is an industrial catalyst, acts as a Lewis acid
2) NaBH4 (sodium borohydride) is an important reducing agent
aluminum comes from?
bauxite- a hydrated, impure oxide (Al2O3 xH2O)
found in earths crust
aluminum metal is obtained by?
the hall process-to give pure Al. Key to the Hall process is use of an alumina (Al2O3)/cryolite (Na3AlF6) mixture which gives a melt at 950 celsius rather than pure alumina (2050 Celsius) for the elctrolysis
Aluminum compounds are:
1)Al2O3 (alumina) has several crystal forms:
alpha-Al2O3 is corundum, which shows up in sandpaper
gamma-Al2O3 is used in chromatography for adsorption
2) AlCl3 6H2O is used as a deodorant and antiperspirant (kills bacteria)
what are the forms of pure carbon?
-diamond
-graphite(most stable at room temp.)
-fullerenes (C60)
-carbon nanotubes
other forms of carbon (other than pure carbon)
1) soot, carbon black are small crystals of graphite-used in ink
2) activated charcoal is highly porous graphitic carbon
other important inorganic carbon compounds:
1)CCl4, CHCl3, CH2Cl2 (carbon tet, chloroform, methylene chloride) important solvents
2)CF4 (refrigerant), CBr4 (fire extinguishing material)
3)SiC (silicon carbide or carborundum) is used as an abrasive
what is zone refining used for?
possible to produce ultra pure Si that are needed for semiconductor manufacturing. In zone refining an electric heater is swept across a cylindrical sample, locally melting the silicon. The impurities collect in the molten state, allowing for their removal. This makes possible the production of Si that is pure to 1 part in 10^9, which is a key requirement of semiconductor of electronics. Zone refining was discovered at Bell Labs in the late 1940s.
Forms of silicon:
1)Pure silicon has the diamond structure
2) amorphous silicon (used in photovoltaics)
(no graphitic form of silicon, or fullerenes or tubes as silicon doesn’t form double bonds with itself)
Silicon applications:
1)Field effect transitors(discovered at Bells labs by Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley)
2)Solar cells (discovered at Bell labs by Pearson, Chapin, Fuller)
Silicon compounds include:
1)Silica (SiO2) used in making glass, ceramics
2) Silica gel (hydrated SiO2) used from chromatography media, as a drying agent
3)Aluminosilicates (replace Si4+ by some amount of Al3+ in silica). This has many forms, such as mica, feldspar, cements (after roasting with lime)
4)Silanes, silicone?? (-O-Si-O-Si-) used as lubricants and for waterproofing
germanium
a semiconductor similar to Si, but much less important (although the first transistors were Ge)
tin
produced from SnO2 by reaction with C. used in tin cans
lead
produced from PbS (galena) by oxidation, then reaction with C. Used on pipes, glazes, paint in the past, but now phased out because of toxicity. Significant uses now are in X-rays and lead-acid batteries
how is pure nitrogen made?
by liquifying air, followed by fractional distillation
what is the industrial process for making ammonia?
the haber process: it involves the reaction N2+ 3H2 –> 3NH3 (performed at high temperature and pressure and with an iron catalyst)
*this produces 1.6 x 10^10 kg of ammonia each year, and the ammonia that is produced is used in fertilizer, polymers, explosives and many other applications
how is nitrogen fixation accomplished in nature?
bacteria
important nitrogen compounds:
1)NH3
2)NH4NO3 explosive and fertilizer
3) NaN3 (sodium azide) this decomposes into Na and N2 when shocked. used in air bags
4) NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), NO (nitric oxide), N2O (nitrous oxide). These oxides of nitrogen show up in many places in modern life. NO2 is a component of song, NO is used in biology for signaling, N2O is an anesthetic
6) HNO3 (nitric acid), HNO2 (nitrous acid), HNO (hyponitrous acid) HNO3 is a strong acid that is used in making fertilizer. HNO2 is used in making nitrites (preservative)
how is superphosphate made?
from Ca3(PO4)2 by heating with C and sand
what is stable form of phosphorous?
P4(white phosphorous). This changes into red phosphorous (chains of linked P4 tetrahedra) when heated in the absence of air
*white phosphorous ignites spontaneously in air; red phosphorous is less reactive, but still can be used in the striking surfaces in matchbooks
Phosphorous compounds:
1) PH3 (phosphine) poisonous gas used in organic chemistry
2) PCl3 and PCl5 used in the synthesis of pesticides, oil additives, flame retardants
3) H3PO4 (phosphoric acid) used in soft drinks, detergents
4) Superphosphate (fertilizer) is a mixture of CaSO4 and Ca(H2PO4)2
what are metalloids that are produced in pure from their sulfide ores?
arsenic and antimony
most important use of As?
in GaAs lasers for CD players. similarly, InSb is another laser system. GaAs is also used in electronics applications as an alternative to Si
how is oxygen produced?
by fractional distillation of liquid air. primarily used in steel manufacturing
how is ozone formed?
by photodissociation (O2–>O + O followed by O + O2 –> O3)
what is pure sulfur?
S8, it occurs in monoclinic and rhombic forms
important sulfur compounds:
1) H2S
2) SO2, SO3
3) H2SO3, H2SO4 (the most heavily produced chemical in USA) used in production of fertilizer, petrochemicals, dyes, detergents
fluorine
produced by electrolysis of KF, its a colorless gas (F2) that is highly reactive
-it forms salts that are not as soluble as the chloride salts. this makes F- a much less important component of seawater than Cl-. CaF2 is an essential component of bone, including teeth
fluorine compounds:
1)SF6
2)UF6 (used for making nuclear reactor fuel)
3)HF the only weak acid of the hydrogen halides, used for etching of electronic components in the electronics industry
how is chlorine manufactured?
from electrolysis of NaCl
chlorine compounds:
1)HCl (hydrochloric/muriatic acid)-stomach acid
2)HClO4 perchloric acid (rocket fuel)
HClO3 chloric acid
HClO2 chlorous acid
HClO (hypochlorous acid) active ingredient in chloral
3) many organic compounds (CCl4), chlorinated polymers (PVC)
how is bromine produced?
from chlorine 2(Br-) + Cl2 –> Br2 + 2(Cl-)
description of fluorine
colorless gas (F2) that is highly reactive
description of bromine
Br2 is a red-brown liquid
important bromine compounds:
1)HBr
2)Same acids as with Cl
how is iodine produced?
from chlorine via 2(I-) + Cl2 –> I2 + 2Cl-
description of iodine
I2 is a black solid with purple vapor
important compounds of iodine:
1)HI
2) Same acids as with Cl
the rare gases are all..?
monatomic gases
how are the noble/ rare gases obtained?
all except He and Rn are by fractional distillation
He comes from natural gas wells in Texas
Rn is found naturally in the ground as a result of radioactive processes
applications of rare gases:
1)Helium is used for cryogenics, for blimps, for He-Ne lasers
2) Neon, krypton, xenon are used for lighting
3) argon is used for welding in inert atmospheres
4) krypton and xenon are used to make excimer lasers (shortest wavelength commercially available lasers)
rare gas compounds?
1) in 1962, Neil Bartlett synthesized XePtF6, which was the first chemical compound involving a rare gas
2) XeF2, XeF4, XeF6, XeO3, XeO4, H2XeO4, XeO6 4-
whats a colloid?
particles (1nm to 1 micrometer) suspended in a solvent
what brownian motion?
theory that in colloids the particles are in constant motion, which keeps them from settling out. Also, the particles may be charged, so that electrostatic repulsion keeps them from aggregating
types of colloids:
1) sol: 1) solid in gas (smoke), aerosol
2) liquid in gas (fog), aerosol
3) solid in liquid (paint)
2)emulsion: liquid in liquid (milk, mayonnaise)
3)gel: solid in liquid that typically has solid texture (jello)
4)foam: gas in liquid
5)solid dispersion: solid in solid (stained glass windows)
6)solid emulsion: liquid in solid (ice cream)
7) solid foam: gas in solid (insulation)
all the d-block elements are…
metals, some are good magnets, most are god electrical conductors
the radii of the first row of the d-block are mostly the same, but there is a ….
general contraction for the first few (due to the increasing nuclear charge), followed by a slight expansion (due to too many electrons)
*also seen in the second and third rows
lanthanide contraction
contraction of the atomic radii going across the lanthanides; arises because the inner shell electrons of the 3rd row transition metals are so close to the nucleus that relativistic effects are important; this makes the electron heavier, which allows them to be located closer to the nucleus. ex: Au and Pt are less reactive, Hg is a liquid
possible shapes of complexes depend on..?
how many ligands there are (usually connected to the oxidation number) and to the hybridization of the orbitals on the metal atom
elements in the 3rd row of the … block and …block have more than 6 ligands
d and f, this leads to the square anti prism structure and dodecahedral structure
example of polydentate ligand?
ethylene diammine(en). leads to the possibility of chelate formation, wherein a bidentate ligand forms a ring with the metal atom as one member. the complex EDTA (ethylene diammine tetra acetic acid) is a hexadentate ligand that is often used to “capture” a metal atom to form an octahedral complex
when do stereoisomers arise?
when the molecule is superimposable on its mirror image
what is an optical isomer?
isomers that are related like an object and its mirror image; identified because they rotate circular polarized light in opposite directions
[CrCl(en)2(NH3)]Cl2
amminechloridobis(ethylenediamine)chromium(III) chloride
Pentaamminechloridocobalt(III) chloride
[CoCl(NH3)5]Cl2
Ligands are….in the formula based on the atom which dominates an electron pair
alphabetical
crystal field theory
image that th ligands are simple point charges located at the vertices of the octahedron that defines the symmetry of the complex. This creates an electric field that interacts with the metal atom splitting the d-orbitals. This splitting creates low lying excited states that are responsible for the colors of the complexes.
size of splitting in ligands depends on?
the size
high spin complexes
associated with weak field ligands
low spin complexes
strong field ligands
NH3
ammine
NO
nitrosyl
OH2
aqua
CO
carbonyl
NH2CH2CH2NH2
ethylenediamine (en)
NH2CH2CH2NHCH2CH2NH2
diethylenetriamine (dien)
F-
fluorido
Cl-
chlorido
Br-
Bromido
I-
iodido
OH-
hydroxido
O^2-
oxido
CN-
cyanido-kC
NCS-
thiocyanto-kN
NO2- as ONO-
nitrito-kO
NO2- as NO2-
nitro, nitrito-kN
CO3^2- as OCO2^2-
carbonoto-kO
C2O4^2- as -O2CCO2-
oxalato (ox)
SO4^2- as OSO3^2-
sulfato
for octahedral complex, use a basis set consisting of…
a)five d-orbitals
b)the s and three p orbitals on the metal
c)the six ligand orbitals
ligand field theory
nothing other than orbital theory as applied to transition metal complexes, using the valence electrons on the metal and ligands
advantages of ligand field theory v. crystal field theory
in ligand field theory, we can calculate the splittings, and the results are more realistic than with crystal field theory, showing the difference between a strong field and weak ligand field
-allows one to describe more subtle interactions, such as those involving the pi orbitals on the ligands with the metal d-orbitals
scandium
+3 oxidation number, reacts with water, used as alloy to strengthen Al
Titanium
+4 oxidation number, used in aircraft(lightweight). TiO2(rutile) is white paint and semiconductor, photocatalyst (splitting water),
BaTiO3
piezoelectric(distorts shape when charged)
Vanadium
+5 oxidation number, used as alloy in steel, V2O5 is an oxidant , used as a catalyst in H2SO4 production
Chromium
+3 state essential for life(required for insulin to work), available in foods and dietary supplements, +6 state is carcinogenic when airborne
Manganese
MnO2 is key component of batteries, KMno4 is an oxidizing agent
Iron
3 grams in the body, mostly as hemoglobin
Cobalt
present in vitamin B12, magnets contain Fe, Ni, Co, Al
Nickel
nickels are 75% Cu, important in many enzymes, urease, hydrogenase
Copper
replaces iron for oxygen transport in some animals, used in bronze, brass, pennies
zinc
present in many enzymes, galvanized metal in zinc coated, used in batteries
Making steel
the reduction of iron ore (Fe2O3 and FeO) to Fe by CO, CO is produced by burning coke
limestone is added to convert impurities into a molten mixture called slag that can be removed
pig iron
iron that is made in a blast furnace
different zinc “ase”s
carbonic anhydrase (hydrolyze CO2 to make HCO3-)
carboxypeptidase (hydrolyzes peptides in digestion)
alcohol dehydrogenase (converts alcohol to aldehyde)
Molybdenum
nitrogenase is a Fe/Mo protein (nitrogen fixation)
this is part of the nitrogenase complex that also includes reductase (an Fe protein)
Platinum
cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2] (cis-platin) is used in treating cancer
Cobalt
pernicious anemia, compound contains the only C-Co bond in biology
steam forming
CH3 + H2O -> CO2 + 3H2
Down’s Process (for alkalines-1)
2NaCl -> 2Na + Cl2(g)
Dow Process
MgCl2 -> Mg + Cl2
Hall Process
Al2O3 + Na3AlF6 -> Al+….
Haber Process
N2 + 3H2 -> NH3
alkali metals with O2
Li, Na, K form oxides M2O
Na with excess O2 forms peroxide M2O2
Rb,Cs,Fr forms superoxide MO2
alkali metals with H2O
M + H2O -> MOH + H2
reactivity increases m
alkali metals with H2
form hydrides, MH
alkaline earths with O2
forms oxide, MO
NOT beryllium
alkaline earths with H2O
form metal hydroxides, M(OH)2
not beryllium
alkaline earths with H2
form metal hydrides, MH2
5 forms of carbon
1)graphite
2)graphene
3)diamond
4)buckyballs
5)nanotube
graphite
comes in sheets-sheets of sp2 carbon
graphene
single sheet, sp2
diamond
tetrahedral, sp3 crystal
buckyballs
C60, has double bonds, somewhere between spy and sp3
nanotube
rolled graphene, sp2-sp3
6 forms of silicon
1)pure silicon
2)amorphous silicon
3)SiO2
4)Alumina silicates
5)silicone
6)carborundum
pure silicon
diamond, tetrahedral
amorphous silicon
tetrahedral, disordered
alumina silicates
mical, feldspar
silicone
-Si-O-Si-O-, water repellant
carborundum
Si-C, abrasives
4 forms of aluminum
1)corrundum
2)alumina
3)bauxide
4)cryolite
corrundum
alpha-Al2O3
alumina
Al2O3
bauxide
mixture of oxides and hydroxides
cryolite
Na3AlF6
lanthanide contraction
-radius stays the same from period 5 to period 6
-reactivity of 6 is lower than expected
-why Au is so stable
-period 6 more stable and radius is smaller than expected
colloids
-aersol
-emulsion/solid emulsion
-gel/sol
-foam/solid foam
aerosol
solid/liquid in gas
-ex: smoke or fog
emulsion
liquid in liquid
solid emulsion
liquid in solid
gel/sol
solid in liquid
foam/solid foam
gas in liquid/gas in solid
ex: mayo, salad dressing, insulation in houses
x

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