Chemistry 110 Final

Scientific Method
A way of understanding how the universe (things around us) operates
Key Steps in Scientific Method
1. Observation
2. Hypothesis
3. Experiment
4. Theory
5. Law
Father of Modern Chemistry
Antoine Lavoisier
Aristotle declared the existence of only four elements:
Fire, water, air, Earth
Democritis
Proclaimed the atom to be the simplest unit of matter
Advent of the Alchemist
Attempted to transmute cheap metals to Gold
Heinrich Geissler
Created first vacuum tube (1854)
Eugene Goldstein
Discovered protons
JJ Thompson
Discovered electrons
Wilhelm Roentgen
Discovered x-rays
Marie Curie
Discovered uranium and thorium
James Chadwick
Discovered the Neutron
Classification of Matter
Any substance that has mass and takes up space.
Mixture
Variable composition, ie: tea w/ sugar
Homogenous Mixture
Uniform composition, ie: buttery spread, salt water, butter milk, windex
Heterogenous Mixture
Non-uniform or uneven composition, ie: salad dressing, wet sand, orange juice w/ pulp, peanut butter
Pure Substance
Fixed composition, ie: Diamond, water (H2O), helium, sodium chloride
Element (Pure Substance)
One type of atom present, ie: Diamond (Carbon only), Helium, Hydrogen
Compound (Pure Substance)
Combination of elements, ie; Dry Ice, Water (H,O), Salt (Sodium, Chlorine)
Solid (State of matter)
-Definite shape
-can not flow
-atoms are closely packed
-cannot be compressed

ie: pen, marbles, book

Liquid (State of matter)
-indefinite shape
-can flow
-atoms are loosely packed
-cannot compress

ie: soda, water, juice

Gas (State of matter)
-indefinite shape
-can flow
-atoms are very loosely packed, far apart
-can compress

ie: oxygen, nitrogen, helium

Mass
Measure of the amount of matter present in an object

English system-pounds, ounces, cups, tons
Metric system- grams, kilograms, milligrams, nanogram

SI Units
Mass-Kilograms
Temperature- Kelvin
Volume- m3
Length- Meters
Energy
Ability to do work. Two types, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
Potential Energy
Energy @ rest. Can be stored through a body’s location or position and through a substances composition. ie: Nuclear energy, Chemical energy
Kinetic Energy
Movement or motion, ie: Heat energy, electrical energy, hydro electricity
Calorie
Amount of energy hat is needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celcius
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy in= Energy out+ Energy stored (as fat)
Specific Dynamic Action
Energy spent extracting energy from food to make it available for use
Basal Metabolism
Energy that is spent to keep us alive without any food physical activity
Metabolism
Chemical reactions that occur in our body (Digesting food and producing energy)
Combustion
Chemical reaction by which energy is produced
Resting Metabolism
Energy spent to make it available for our use. That is spent to keep us alive with no food for us to twelve hours.
3 ways we spend energy from our body
Exercise
Metabolism
Specific Dynamic
Energy in Macronutrients
Carbohydrates (4 cal/g), Fats & Oils (9 cal/g), Protein (4 cal/g). These macronutrients are transformed into human energy
Atoms
Tiny particles that make up all matter
Composition of an Atom
Protons+Neutrons= inside the nucleus, Electrons= outside the nucleus
Elements
Cells of every creature are made up of atoms of different elements.
Atomic Number
The # of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

Top number in square

Mass Number
Bottom number
Number of Protons and Electrons
Protons and Electrons are the same number as the atomic number (top number)
Number of Neutrons
Subtract number of protons (top number) from atomic mass (bottom number)
Electrons
Negative Charge
Protons
Positive Charge
Neutron
No charge
Ions
Elements in a compound that are electrically charged
Cations
Ions with a positive charge. More protons than electrons. Formed by losing electrons.
Anions
Ions with a negative charge, more electrons than protons. Formed by gaining electrons.
Acids
Sour in taste, begin in H.
ie: H3PO4

0-7 (closer to 0= more acidic)

Common Acids:
Citric Acid (lemons)
Acetic Acid (vinegar)
Phosphoric acid (preservative in soda)
Lactic acid (in milk)
Sulfuric acid (car battery)
Nitric Acid (turns skin yellow)

Bases
bitter in taste & slippery to touch, end in OH
ie: Ca(OH)2

7-14=Basic (closer to 7=more basic)

Common bases:
Pepto Bismol, Ammonia, Alka Seltzer, Baking Soda

Litmus Test
Blue litmus–>Red= Acidic

Red Litmus–>Blue=Basic

Chemical Compounds
A distinct substance that is composed of atoms of two or more elements

Simplest unit=molecule or ion

Molecular Compounds
Two or more non metals present. Covalent Bond present.

ie: HCL

Ionic Compounds
Metals and Nonmetals. Ionic bond present

ie: NaCL

Solution
Made of of a solute (lesser) and solvent (greater)
Solvent
Present in the higher amount
Solute
Present in the lesser amount
Solubility
Amount of substance in grams that can be dissolved in the given amount of solvent. (increases with temp.)
Dilute
Less amount of solute dissolved in the given amount of solvent
Concentrated
More of the solute dissolved in the given amount of solvent
Saturated
Maximum amount of solute has been dissolved in solvent
Unsaturated
Less than the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved in the solvent.
Supersaturated
More than the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved in the solvent. Starts to precipitate
Organic Chemistry
Study of Carbon compounds
Paraffins
Carbon & hydrogen bond is single bond.
Olleffins
Bonding is double or tribal between carbon and hydrogen
Paraffins/Alkanes

**Remember a’s**

Single bond, CnH2n+2

CH4–>Methane
C2H6–>Ethane
C3H8–> Propane
C4H10–> Butane
C5H12–> Pentane

Olefins/Alkens

**remember E’s**

Double bond, CnH2n

C2H4–> Ethylene
C3H6–> Propene
C4H8–> Butene
C5H10–>Pentene

Oleffins/Alkynes

**remember y’s**

Triple bond, CnH2n-z

C2H2–> Ethyne
C3H4–> Propyne
C4H6–> Butyne
C4H8–> Pentyne

Aromatic Compounds
has presence of atlas one benzene ring
Functional Groups
Groups of atoms that impact special properties to the component.
C2H5OH

*Functional Group*

Alcohol Group
C2H5CHO

*Functional Group

Aldenhyde Group
C2H5CoOH

*Functional Group

Carboxylic Acid Group
C2H5NH2
Amino Group
C2H5CoOc2H5
Ester Group
C2H5COCH3
Keto Group
C2H5OCH3
Ether Group
Synthesis (or) Combination Reaction

*Chemical Reaction

A+B+C—> D
More than one reactant–> only one product
Decomposition Reaction

*Chemical Reactions

A–> B+C, only one reactant more than one product
Single Displacement

*Chemical Reaction

A+BC–>AC+B
Double Displacement

*Chemical Reaction

AB+CD–>AD+CB
Combustion

*Chemical Reaction

Reactant: O2 Product Side: CO2+H2O
Acid Base

*Chemical Reaction

Acids always begin with H

Base always ends in OH

Carbohydrates
Provide us energy–> 4cal/1g of carbs

-composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a CH2O proportion. For each carbon and oxygen there are two hydrogen atoms

Broken down into 2 kinds of sugars: simple & complex

examples: fruits, vegetables, bread, oats, rice

Simple Sugars
Monosaccharides (mono-1)(C6H12O3)

ie: glucose-in your blood, fruits, honey
fructose- present in plants, fruits, honey

Complex Sugars
Disaccharides (di-2)
ie: sucrose–table sugar (made up of 2 glucose units)

Polysaccharides (poly-many)
ie: Starch- long tern energy stored in plants (corn, potatoes)
Glycogen- long term energy stored in animals
Cellulose- Plants, cells

Cholesterol
Present only in animal cells. Levels LDL (bad), HDL (good)

Total Cholesterol:
<200-->Desirable
200-239–> Borderline
>240–> High

LDL
Low Density Lipoprotein (BAD!)

<100= optimum
100-129= near optimum
130-159= borderline high
>160= very high

HDL
High Density Lipoprotein (Good!)

>60= Optimum
<40= Men
<50= Women

Triglyceride
Comes from the fats and oils we consume

<150= normal
150-199= Borderline
>200= High

Proteins
Found in nails & skin. Contains amino acids and are present in every cell in body. Excess proteins cannot be stored in body.
Complimentary Protein
Found in beans & rice, peanut butter sandwich, macaroni and cheese.
Protein breakdown
Proteins break down into polypeptides-> peptides-> amino acids-> glucose (so your body can store)
Oils
Liquids @ room temperature

double bond=saturated compound
only one double bond=monosaturated
more than one bond= polysaturated

Fats
Solids @ room temperature

Fats are completely saturated… ie: redmeat, eggyolk

Adipose Tissue
Give our body energy without food present
Essential Amino Acids
Cannot be synthesized by our body, supplemented by food intake

ie: Lysine, Valine, Histidine

Non-essential Amino Acids
Can be synthesized by our body
ie: Glycine, Proline, Serine
Minerals
Good for the body, only obtained from food, they are not made in our body.
Examples of minerals
Calcium–> present in bones
Fluorine–> tooth enamel
Iron–> Red Blood Cells
Zinc–> Need for general health
Copper–> Deficiency can lead to change in hair color (anemia)
Vitamins
Found in foods we eat. Your body needs them to work properly, so you grow and develop

2 main categories:
1. Water Soluble: B Complex, C
2. Fat Soluble: A, D, E, K

Vitamin A (Fat Soluble)
-Very important for good vision
-Deficiency leads to night blindness

Food Sources: Carrots, grapefruit, pumpkin

Vitamin D (Fat soluble)
-Needed for good bone formation and proper functioning of the immune system
-Deficiency leads to Rickets (weakening of bones)

Food Sources:
Sweet potato, oily fish, cereals

Vitamin E (fat soluble)
Good for skin, slows aging process, helps in reduction of LDL (bad cholesterol)

Food Sources:
Sunflower seeds, tomato, walnuts

Vitamin K (fat soluble)
-Helpful in blood clotting, prevents hemorrhage and bruising
-destroyed by antibiotics

Sources: Banana, eggs, yogurt

Vitamin C (Complex)
Good for immune system, general well being, helps in absorption of iron

Food Sources: Lime, Lemon, Orange

Vitamin B-1 (Complex)
Thiamine
-Plays a major role in energy metabolism of cells
-Plays role in nervous system
-Deficiency results in “Beri Beri” which is the weakening of bones, stiffening of legs

Food Sources: Brown rice, unpolished wheat, cereal, nuts

Vitamin B-6 (Complex)
-Helps in conversion of tryptophan to niacin (converts 1 kind of amino acid which cell has abundance, to another which is deficient in the cell.)
-helps in regulation of blood glucose

Food Sources:
Banana, salmon, fortified cereals, turkey, chicken

Vitamin B-12 (Complex)
-Also called “cobalamin”
-Present only in animal sources
-Needed for good functioning of immune and nervous system
-Deficiency= anemia

Food Sources:
Clams, muscles, salmon, crab, beef, milk, eggs, cheese

Perfumes
-Branding, quality, easiness to manufacturer determines price
-made up of aeromatic compounds & essentials
Single Floral (perfume family)
One flower
Floral Bouquet (perfume family)
Mix of flowers
Ambery (perfume family)
Scent of vanilla, wood (tree bark), cinnamon
Woody (perfume family)
sandal wood
Fougere- French Fern (perfume family)
Contains lavender, coumarin, and oakness
Perfume Categories
1. Perfume extracts: 20%-40% aeromatic compound
2. Eau de Perfum: 10%-30% aeromatic compound
3. Eau de Toilette; 5%-20% aeromatic compound
4. Eau de Cologne: 2%-5% aeromatic compound
Evidence of Chemical Reactions
Color change, odor, energy changes (becomes very hot or cold), formation of gas (bubbles), formation of solid (precipitation).
What are the different layers that make up the atmosphere?
Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Ionosphere
Disaccharides
-is formed when two monosaccharides are joined together by a reaction known as a dehydration, or condensation, synthesis. In this type of reaction water is removed, thus the name “dehydration”. A new molecule is formed or “synthesized” from the two previously separate ones.
-common example is sucrose or table sugar which is present in sugar cane, syrup, and some fruits
Polysaccharides
-are made of many sugar molecules joined together by dehydration synthesis reactions. When many repeating units are joined together to make a large molecule, the resulting molecule is called a polymer.
-starch, glycogen, cellulose and chitin are all examples and are made of many repeating units of glucose molecules.
Glycemic Index
-is a measure of the effects of carbohydrates on blood glucose levels.

Foods Low in GI: most fruit and vegetables (except potatoes, watermelon), grainy breads, pasta
Foods High in GI: corn flakes, baked potato, watermelon, white bread, candy

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