Chemistry 1127Q

Solid: volume and shape
Definite volume and fixed shape
Liquid: volume and shape
Definite volume and shape takes shape of container
Gas: volume and shape
Neither a fixed volume or shape
Pure substances and the two types of pure substances
Elements or compounds, a type of matter that has a definite, or fixed composition that does not vary from one sample of substance to another sample of the same substance
Element and how it’s identified
Cannot be decomposed into simpler substances
identified by its symbol
Compound
Constant composition that can be broken down into its elements by chemical processes
Mixtures and the two types of mixtures
two or more substances that can be separated by purely physical means (no fixed composition)
Homogeneous and heterogeneous
Heterogeneous mixture
the composition and physical properties vary from one part of the mixture to another
Homogeneous mixture
or a solution, a mixture uniform in its properties throughout given samples
Three methods of separation of a mixture
Distillation, filtration, chromatography
Distillation
Separation of a liquid mixture via different methods of vaporization depending on what the components are
Filtration
Used when the mixture is solid and liquid
Chromatography
This method takes advantage of differences in solubility and/or extent of absorption on a solid surface
Scientific measurements are expressed in the __________
metric system
Unit of mass, length, time, and temperature
Kilogram, meter, second, Kelvin
Weight describes
the force of gravity on an object
Temperature
the factor that determines the direction of heat flow
Significant figures and when they apply
digits in a measured number that include all certain digits plus a final one having some uncertainty
Apply only to measurements, which are quantities subject to error
When do nonzero integers count as significant figures?
Always
When do leading zeros count as significant figures?
Never
When do captive zeros count as significant figures?
Always
When do trailing zeros count as significant figures?
Only when the number contains a decimal point
When a number an exact number?
When we count items or when they arise from definitions
When multiplying or dividing numbers, how do we use sig figs?
We use the least number of significant figures a measurement has
When adding or subtracting numbers, how do we sue sig figs?
We use the least number of sig figs a measurement has
Chemical property
a characteristic of a material involving its chemical change
Physical property and two types of physical properties
a characteristic that can be observed for a material without changing its chemical identity, extensive and intensive
Extensive property
one whose magnitude depends on the quantity of material (mass and volume)
Intensive property
magnitude is independent of the amount of material (density and boiling point)
Density
the ratio of mass to volume
Solubility
maximum amount of a pure substance (solute) that will normally dissolve in a given quantity of a dissolving medium (solvent) at a given temperature, yielding a solution
Saturated solution
in equilibrium with respect to a given dissolved substance
Unsaturated solution
a solution not in equilibrium with respect to a given dissolved substance and in which more of the substance can dissolve
Supersaturated solution
a solution that contains more dissolved substance than a saturated solution
The Atomic Theory, whose theory it is
Dalton’s Theory
1) all matter is composed of small, indivisible particles called atoms (false, subatomic particles)
2) all atoms of a given chemical element are identical in mass and in all other properties (false, different masses, isotopes)
3) different chemical elements have different kinds of atoms, and such atoms have different masses
4) in an ordinary chemical reaction, atoms move from one substance to another, but no atom of element disappears or is changed into an atom of another element
5) the formation of a compound from its elements occurs through the combination of atoms of unlike elements in small whole number ratios
Law of conservation of mass
total mass remains constant during a chemical reaction
Law of constant composition
in a compound, the proportions by mass of the elements that compose it are fixed
Law of multiple proportions
two or more compounds of the same two elements, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the second element are in the ratio of small whole numbers
Atomic number and letter used to represent it
Z, number of protons, all atoms of the same element have the same number of protons in the nucleus
Mass number and letter used to represent it
A, sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Isotopes
Same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Nuclear symbol
A V
Z / (thats an x lol the element symbol)
Atomic mass and how it’s expressed
weighted average of the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of that element, expressed in amu (atomic mass units)
Mass spectrometer
used to determine the types of isotopes present in an element, the exact atomic masses of these isotopes, and the relative amount of each isotope present
How atomic mass is found
found my multiplying the atomic mass of each isotope by its fractional abundance and adding the values obtained
Avogadro’s number
convenient number to use when working with atoms, molecules, or ions (6.0221415e+23)
Represents the number of atoms of an element in a sample whose mass in grams is numerically equal to the atomic mass of the element
Period
Horizontal rows
Group
Column
Main-group elements
1, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18
Transition metals
10 elements in center
Periods 4-6 Groups 3-12
Alkali metals
Lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), and francium (Fr)
active elements that readily form ions with a +1 charge when they react with nonmetals
Alkaline earth metals
Beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra)
Form ions with a 2+ charge when they react with nonmetals
Halogens
Group 17- flourine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At)
Noble gases
Group 18- helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn)
Metalloids
B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te
Have chemical behaviors in between metals and nonmetals
Semiconductors of electricity
Metals
Left side of the table and the metalloids line
Solids (besides mercury) and conduct electricity, are ductile, malleable, and can form alloys
Nonmetals
Right of the stairway
Wide variety of properties
Besides graphite and a form of carbon, non conduct electricity
NH4 +
ammonium
Hg2 2+
mercury I
OH –
hydroxide
NO3 –
nitrate
ClO3 –
chlorate
ClO4 –
perchlorate
CN –
cyanide
C2H3O2 –
acetate
MnO4 –
permanganate
HCO3 –
hydrogen carbonate
H2PO4 –
dihydrogen phosphate
CO3 2-
carbonate
SO4 2-
sulfate
CrO4 2-
chromate
Cr2O7 2-
dichromate
HPO4 2-
hydrogen phosphate
PO4 3-
phosphate
NO3 –
nitrate
NO2 –
nitrite
SO4 2-
sulfate
SO3 2-
sulfite
ClO4 –
perchlorate
ClO3 –
chlorate
ClO2 –
chlorite
ClO-
hypochlorite
Which group in the periodic table has one metalloid and no nonmetals?
13
Which group in the periodic table has no nonmetals or transition metals?
2
Which group in the periodic table has no metals or metalloids?
17 and 18
Chemical bonds
forces that hold atoms together in compounds
Covalent bonds, what they’re known as, and what kind of atoms form this bond
Bond formed by sharing electrons
Molecules
Two nonmetal atoms
Ionic bonds, what they’re known as, and what kind of atoms form this bond
Bond exists between a positive and negative ion
Ionic compounds
A metal and a nonmetal atom
Molecule
An assembly of two or more atoms that bind tightly
Molecular formula
Involves the types of atoms present (symbols for the elements) and the relative number of atoms (using subscripts)
Structural formula
Individual bonds are shown
Emphasizes the connectivity of atoms and chemically important groups of atoms in the molecule
Condensed structural formula
Suggests the bonding pattern and highlights the presence of a reactive group of atoms
Ions
The charged particles formed when atoms lose or gain electrons in chemical reactions
Cations
Positively charged ions (losing electrons, metals)
Anions
Negatively charged ions (gaining electrons, nonmetals)
Monoatomic ions and what groups form what
Simple ions, single atoms that lost or gained electrons
Metals in groups 1 and 2 form positive ions with a charge equal to their group number
Metals in group 13 form positive charges with a charge equal to the last digit of their group number
Polyatomic ions
Two or more atoms bonded together
Ionic bonds
Strong electrical forces between oppositely charged ions that hold ionic compounds together
Typical ionic compound characteristics
Solids at room temperature and do not conduct electricity (molten ionic compounds do)
high melting points
many ionic solids dissolve in water
Electrolytes
Compounds whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity
All ionic compounds that are soluble in water are good electrolytes
Nonelectrolytes
Sugar and other molecular solutes
Determining charges of cations from Group 1 and Group 2
Form a positive ion with a charge equal to the group number of the metal
Determining charges of cations that are transition metals
No easily predictable pattern of behavior occurs
Determining charges of nonmetal ions and why
Negative charge equal to 18 minus the group number of the element because this represents the number of electrons gained by an atom of the element
Determining charges of noble gases in chemical reactions
Very stable
May lose or gain electrons in few reactions
Naming a positively charged monoatomic ion
Name of the metal plus “ion”
What type of metals form more than one type of positive ion and how are they identified?
Transition metals that can form more than one cation
Roman numeral in parentheses right after metal’s name
the ion with the higher charge has a name ending in -ic
the ion with the lower charge has a name ending in -ous
How to name a monoatomic negative ion
Add -ide to the stem of the name of the nonmetal element from which the ion is derived from
What do most polyatomic anions contain and how do you name them?
Most contain one or more oxygen atoms called oxoanions
Two members in such a series:
smaller number of O atoms ends in -ite
larger number of O atoms ends in -ate
More than two oxoanions make up a series:
hypo- (less than)
per- (more than)
When naming ionic compounds, what ion name is given first?
Positive ion, then negative ion
Rules for naming binary molecular compounds
First element:
Full element name (mono prefix isn’t used)
Second element:
Replace ending with -ide

Prefixes designate number of atoms present

Relative proton mass in amu
1.00728
Relative neutron mass in amu
1.00867
Relative electron mass in amu
0.00055
Greek prefixes 1-5
mono
di
tri
tetra
penta
Greek prefixes 6-10
hexa
hepta
octa
nona
deca
x

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