Chemistry 1306

Know how we get electricity (what process happens and where does fossil fuel get used in this process)
Coal is used to create electricity in a power plant.
1.) combustion
2.) Boil water in a closed, high pressure system
3.) Turn turbine to create electricity
*every other fuel source is cleaner
When naming a compound composed of two non-metals, the number of _____ of each element is indicated by a Greek numerical prefix.
Atoms
The first element in the name is numbered only when ___ or more atom(s)of that element are present.
1
Gas molecules are in constant random motion and are extremely ______ under normal circumstances.
Close together.
If the gas molecules in a sample of air were condensed their actual volume would be very _____.
Large
Catalyst
Substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed.
Chemical reaction where reactants are transformed into products.
Combustion
Express the quantity 0.000000000085 in scientific notation.
8.5×10-11
TRUE or FALSE.
After the completion of a reaction, the number of substances may change but the total mass remains the same.
TRUE. Matter is neither created nor destroyed.
The prefix ____ represents 10 atoms of the same element
deca
The prefix hexa- is used to indicate ___ atoms of an element.
6
Percent means parts per ____.
hundred
A molecule that always contains carbon and may contain hydrogen, nitrogen, or oxygen is ______.
Organic
Which pollutant is present in air as particulate matter?
Soot
What two factors are considered when determining the risk assessment for air pollutants?
Exposure and Toxicity.
Which pollutant can not be detected by their odor?
Carbon Monoxide
The layer of our atmosphere that contains the highest concentration of ozone is the ____?
Stratosphere
Green Chemistry
the design of products and processes that reduce hazardous substances
Which of the following is a pure substance?
Lemonade, Concrete, Gasoline, Silver Wire
Silver wire
Which color in the rainbow has the shortest wavelength?
Violet
What distinguishes the atoms of one element from another?
the # of protons
The atomic number is the same as the ____.
number of protons in a nucleus
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
The entropy of the universe is constantly increasing. Energy conversions cannot be 100% efficient.
Hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbons
Alkanes
Isomers
Have the same formula, but vary structurally
Activation Energy
Increasing temperature allows more particles to have sufficient energy to overcome the activation barrier. Lower activation energy generally results in faster reactions
First law of dynamics
Energy cannot be created nor destroyed
What is the most modern unit of energy?
Joules (J)
During an energy conversion, what happens to the energy that is lost?
It becomes kinetic energy of random motion of the surrounding molecules.
Net efficiency=
electrical energy produced/ x100
heat from fuel
What are common sources of energy in the US?
Petroleum, Natural gas, and Coal
Proposed “clean coal” technologies use what kind of techniques?
Capture and store carbon emissions.
Wash to remove impurities.
Chemically removing SO2 before releasing combustion products.
Example of Waste-to-energy Conversion
Garbage can be burned without additional fuel used to generate electricity
What are the benefits of a catalyst in green chemistry?
They are not consumed in the reaction, so only small amounts are needed, and they allow for lower reaction temperatures.
What is the chemical formula for Pentane?
C5H12
What is the chemical formula for Ethane?
C2H6
What is chemical formula for methane?
CH4
What is the chemical formula for Heptane?
C7H16
What are common products of combustion?
CO2 and H20
In the octane-rating system, iso-octane is assigned a rating of ____.
100
In the octane-rating system, heptane is assigned a rating of ____.
0
What are environmental and ethical impacts of increased corn ethanol production?
Fertilizers have insecticides used in corn growing that have been increasingly introduced to the soil and water. Farmland is being diverted from food to produce ethanol, driving worldwide food prices up. The demand for additional farmland has increased the danger of deforestation.
Petroleum
It is made from partially decomposed organic matter. It is a mixture of many different compounds.
What type of hydrocarbon molecule burns most smoothly in an internal combustion engine?
Highly branched hydrocarbons
What are some disadvantages of using coal as a fuel source?
Coal mining can cause environmental harm. Burning coal can release sulfur and mercury.
How is the octane-rating of fuel assigned?
Octane rating is the percentage of iso-octane that, mixed with heptane, burns with the same characteristic as fuel.
What are the main social and economic disadvantages of using corn ethanol as fuel?
Ethanol production consumes significant fossil fuels to provide energy to plant corn and distill the alcohol. Ethanol is more expensive per volume than crude oil.
What was the result of the energy balance study on the production and use cycle of bio diesel?
Bio diesel generates 300% more energy than is required to produce it.
What is the main component of petroleum?
Hydrocarbon(s)
Biogas
Fuel mixture produced by using bacteria to decompose sewage and manure.
What are advantages of using oxygenated fuels?
They enhance the octane rating of the gasoline, and they produce less CO than traditional gasoline.
What do proteins and nylons have in common?
Both polymers are formed through condensation polymerization. The monomers of both polymers are linked through amide linkages.Both polymers are copolymers.
Describe the recycling of plastics.
Codes on plastic containers help to separate different types of polymers.Once sorted, plastics are melted.
Relationship between molecular shape and the strength of dispersion forces.
Molecules with a larger surface area have more points of contact and therefore experience stronger dispersion forces.
Dispersion forces
Attraction between molecules due to a distortion in the electron cloud, which causes an uneven distribution of negative charge
Recycling that involves a closed loop in which plastics are recycled and converted into other products.
True Recycling
Polymers that are formed by a combination of functional groups that eliminate a small molecule.
Condensation polymers
Describe a catalyst used in an addition polymerization
The catalyst is a free radical, and highly reactive
Eco-friendly polymers
Made from materials such as wood, cotton, starch, and sugar. Waste decomposes easily. Have been used in automobile parts.
What is the first step in addition polymerization?
Reaction of the catalyst with the monomer
HDPE
High Density so strong and rigid.
Describe plastic in landfills.
Not readily biodegradable.
Describe source reduction and its advantages.
Involves using less material and helps to reduce pollution.
Energy
Capacity to do work
Work
Movement against a force
(w=fxd)
Heat
Energy that flows from a hotter to colder object
Calorie
Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gallon of water by 1 degree c
When naming organic molecules, 1 Carbon would be represented by what prefix?
Meth-
When naming organic molecules, 2 Carbon would be represented by what prefix?
Eth-
When naming organic molecules, 3 Carbons would be represented by what prefix?
Prop-
When naming organic molecules, 4 Carbons would be represented by what prefix?
But-
When naming organic molecules, 5 Carbon would be represented by what prefix?
Pent-
When naming organic molecules, 6 Carbons would be represented by what prefix?
Hex-
Saturated Hydrocarbon
All single bonds, each carbon is bound to only other carbons and hydrogens.
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
Carbon is bound to the maximum amount of atoms. Each of the 4 bonds that carbon make are NOT to separate atoms. Multiple bonds greatly influence the shape of a molecule.
Functional Groups
Molecules that behave as a unit. Allow us to categorize types of organic molecules that have similar properties
Heteroatoms
organic compounds that are not carbon or hydrogen. functional groups contain 1 or more heteratom.
Alcohol
OH group molecule. Allows short molecules to fully dissolve in water.
What happens when you make the alcohol longer?
Becomes less soluble.
Methanol
one of the most produced chemicals in the US. Used to make formaldehyde and acetic acid which are used in plastic production.
Ethers
Much like alcohols except the oxygen is bound to two carbons instead of a carbon and a hydrogen. NOT polar.
Amines
compounds where a N bound to 1,2,3 saturated carbons.Very strong odors. Ex: Potrescine. Less polar than alcohol, but more polar than ethers.
Carbonyl
NOT its own functional group. Makes Ketones and Aldehydes.
Mer
Name given to a small # unit
Plastic
Man-made polymer
Biopolymer
Plant cell walls made from proteins, DNA, complex carbohydrates
Synthetic Polymer
Made from one or two reactions: addition and condensation.
Addition Polymerization
From joining together 2 or more monomers. Requires the pressence of a double bond. No atoms are gained or lost. only electrons are shared between the bonds.
HDPE
High Density Polyethylene. strong/rigid.
LDPE
Low Density Polyethylene. EX: twigs.
Condensation Polymerization
formed by the gaining of 2 or more monomers that form from the loss of a single molecule. Requires the use of a functional group. Many different polymers are formed from 2 separate compounds.
Copolymer
Forming of a polymer from 2 separate compounds.
Biomolecules
Mostly polymers. Take on multiple shapes. Molecules produced and used within a cell.
Animal Cell (difference from plant)
Mitochondria
Plant Cell (difference from animal)
Cell wall and Chloroplast
Plasma Membrane
the boundary of the cell. Regulates the movement of particles in and out of the cell.
Cytoplasm
Where all the other components of the cell are found (organelles).
Organelle
Produce, store, and transport biomolecules. Each organelle has a specific function that it must carry out.
Carbohydrates
Molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Plants produce carbs during photosynthesis by combining carbon dioxide with water via sunlight.
Saccharide
Simple sugar. Can be mono-, di-, poly-
Sucrose
Disaccharide made from glucose and fructose.
Polysaccharide
Long chains of monosaccharides much like polymers are long chains of monomers
Starch
Plants produce glucose during the process of photosynthesis. Glucose is the fuel of the plant cell. So excess glucose must be store-plants store glucose as starch. Two types: Amylose and Amypectin.
Amylose
Straight chain of glucose that coils around itself. Only two ends open for release of glucose.
Amylopectin
Branched form of plant starch. Coiled but branched, making it bulky and having more free ends open to release glucose.