Chemistry, 2012

Elements 
substances consisting of atoms with the same number of protons 
Atomic Number 
number of protons in an element 
Mass Number 
total number of protons and neutrons cfontained within the necleus 
Isotopes 
all atoms of the same element have to have the same number of protons but N can vary 
Information reguarding charges 

– if the compound has a charge it is part of an ionic compound

– if NO charge then a covalent compound 

What are the first 5 common radicals 

– (NH4)4+ – ammonium 

– (OH)1- – Hydroxide 

– (SO4)2- – Sulfate 

– (CO3)2- – Carbonate 

– (NO3)1- – Nitrate 

What are the second 6 common radicals?

(PO4)3-  Phosphate 

(Cr2O7)2-  Dichromate 

(Cr)4)2-  Chromate

(HSO4)1-  Bisulphate/hydrogen sulfate

(HCO3)1-  Bicarbonate/hydrogen carbonate

(HPO4)2-  Biphosphate

What does (Bi) mean when being added to ionic compounds?

Bi= adding a hydrogen 

 

What does (ite) mean? ( ionic componds)

all are compounds that have oxygen. These compounds have one less oxygen then ‘ate”

(SO3)2- SulfITE

(CO2)2-  CarbonITE

these are all negitivly charged  

Name the first 10 prefixes for COVALENT COMPOUNDS 

Covalent Compounds(nonmental + nonmetal)

1- mon, 2- di, 3-tri, 4-tetra, 5- penta, 6- hex, 7- sept/hept, 8- oct, 9- mon, 10- dec

What is the difference between di and bi?                ( covalent compounds)

di- means two and is a prefix for covalent compounds

bi- means adding a hydrogen to covalent compounds biphosphate (HPO4)2-

Orbitals 

( general information)

(regions of probability) 

– regions is space were we find elections 

– infinate # of electrons 

– were e- are 90% of the time

– when found close to the atom- GROUND state

– Imition spectrum ( lowest energy state) 

Electron Configuration Table (orbitals) 

 

 

What are the energy levels of Hydrogen?

6s 6p 6d 6f

5s 5p 5d 5f

4s 4p 4d 4f

3s 3p 3d 3f

2s 2p 2d 2f 

1s 

Valence Electrons
electrons is the outermost incomplete quantum level

– structural formula

– lewis structure

– orbital structure 

of H2?

H-H ( SF)

Hx.H ( LS)

HØ(1s)

HØ(1s)

( remember Orbital Structure must be boxed with no round corners!)

Ionization Energy (I.E)
energy required to remove the most loosly bonded e- to infinity 
Electrostatic Force 

EF = (necleus charge)+(electron charge)

d2 (radius)

 

(atoms attract additonal elements)

Smaller internueclar distance 

– stronger bonds

– charge makes stronger bonds 

Covalent Bonding

– between two NON- METALS

– share e- to complete outershell 

– does not conduct electricity

– form molecules

Types of Bonding (carbon)

– 3D network solid (SiO2;WC)

– 2D network Solid

– covalent molecular solid ( CO2, Buckyball, H2S, O2, NO)

3D network solid (v. hard, v. high mp/bp, clear, hard to shape, doesnt conduct as a solid)

Give examples and properties of COVALENT MOLECULAR STRUCTURE

gasses ( CO2, SO2, )2, H2)

buckyball (have a size!)

covalent bond

doesent conduct

graphite, diamond, CO2, potassium chloride

Give examples and properties of a 2D network?

In layers that slide

graphite

can conduct electricity along the layers

dosen’t dissolve in H2O

greesing agent

MP/BP high but not as high as 3D

Give properties and examples of a 3D network

Diamond, SiO2, WC

very high melting and boiling point

doesn’t conduct

doesn’t dissolve in H2O

Name some properties of metals

– conduct electricity

– usually metalic/silver

– shiny

– have one to two valence e-

– medium melting point

– ductile/ maluable (wire, sheets)

Low I.E

Melting Point

– the bigger the atom the lower the melting point ( easy to remove outer e-)

– for all METALS mp lowers as you go down the collum

– as you go across the periods the mp becomes higher

Van Der Waals Force ( london forces, disperson forces)

– exsists only between molecules

– only with atoms that have completely filled outer shells

– NOBEL GASSES

– larger the size (surface area) higer the MP/BP point

Hydrogen Bonds

occurs between hydrogen- F, N, O, Cl

the dipoles are attracted to each other

 

Dipole

exsists between 2 different atoms

– points towords the negitive end

MOLECULAR DIPOLE

– sim of all electric dipoles present

Relitive Atomic Mass Eqn
= %of isotope 1 + % of isotope 2+ % of isotope 3 + % of isotope …

Hydrocarbons

 what are the 6 types of hydrocarbons?

(Hydrogen and carbon only!)

– Alkane

– Alkene

– Alkyne

– Benzene

– Alcohols

– Aldehyde

ALKANE

(saturated HC)

– suffix= ane, prefixes= # of c present

formula= CnH2n+2

 

what are the 10 prefixes for hydrocarbons
1- meth, 2-eth, 3- prop, 4- but, 5- pent, 6- hex, 7- sept, 8- oct, 9- non, 10-dec
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