Chemistry

MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheet, tells one basic information about the chemical
LD-50
Lethal Dose- 50. The amount of the substance it takes to kill 50/100 rats. The higher the LD-50, the safer the chemical
H, He, N, O, F, Ne, CL, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn are all at what state at room temperature?
Gaseous
Hg and Br are at what state at room temperature?
Liquid
B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te and Po are metals, metalloids or non-metals?
Metalloids
H, He, C, N, O, F, Ne, P, S, Cl, Ar, Se, Br, Kr, I, Xe, At and Rn are metals, metalloids or non-metals?
Non-Metals
WHMIS
Workplace Hazardous Material Information System
The number of protons is equal to the number of (1)______. The nucleus is made up of neutrons and (2)________. The atomic number is equal to the number of (3)________.
(1)Electrons
(2)Protons
(3)Protons
Democritus discovered the theory of (1)______. Empedocles thought there to be four elements which were (2)___,___,___,___. Aristotle agreed with (3)________
(1)Atomism
(2)Earth, Air, Water, Fire
(3)Empedocles
Dalton figured atoms were of this shape (1)_______. Faraday discovered (2)________. Mendeleev was the first person to make something remotely similar to a (3)_________ ________.
(1)Spherical
(2)Electromagnetism
(3)Periodic Table
Thomson developed the (1)________ ____ _____ which showed evidence of protons. Rutherford worked on the idea of (2)____, ____ and ____ decay/radiation. Marie Curie founded the term (3)__________ with her husband and discovered the elements (4)_______ and _______
(1)Raisin Bun Model
(2)Alpha, Beta and Gamma
(3)Radioactivity
(4)Polonium and Radium
Rutherford used gold foil to determine that gamma decay is greater than beta decay which is greater than alpha decay. This also proved that there is a (1)_________ charged nucleus and that there are (2)________ outside of the nucleus. Bohr discovered that an atom is made of (3)______.
(1)Positively
(2)Electrons
(3)Orbital Shells
Full name of: Ti, Co, Br, I, W, Pb, U, Cr, Ni, Kr, Xe, Pt, Po, Pu, Mn, Cu, Ag, Rn, Au, Fe, Zn, Sn, Ba, Ra
Titanium, Cobalt, Bromine, Iodine, Lead, Uranium, Chromium, Nickel, Krypton, Xenon, Platinum, Polonium, Plutonium, Manganese, Copper, Silver, Radon, Gold, Iron, Zinc, Tin, Barium, Radium
A Line Spectrum is created and emits light that we can see when…
The electrons are excited (due to heat or electricity) and jump to a higher shell. It then gets cooled to the second level which then emits the light that we can see.
What is a cation vs an anion?
Cation is what forms when a particle is more positive, aka has lost an electron. An anion is what forms when a particle is more negative, aka has gained an electron.
What is the equation to determine Average Atomic Mass?
the sigma (total sum of) the abundances (in decimal form) times the atomic mass of the isotope
Radioactivity
An element that spontaneously emits radiation resulting from changes in the nuclei of an atom
Half-Life (definition and eq’n)
The time it takes the # of original radioactive atoms to decay.
Total amount equals the original amount times 1/2 to the power of time it takes for the decay to occur over the half-life
Every shell around the nucleus can hold ___ electrons.
Two n to the power of two
S looks like a (1)______. P looks like a (2)_________. D looks like a (3)________. and F is referred to as a (4)”____ _____”
(1)Sphere
(2)Dumbbells
(3)Clover
(4)Big Mess
The Paulie Exclusion Principle
Only two electrons of opposite spin can occupy a single orbital.
Hund’s Rule
Each individual orbital gets an electron before any get two.
How do you form a Condensed Electron Configuration?
Use the closest Noble Gas that is seen BEFORE the element. Even if there is a Noble Gas one element away after the elements, you must still use the one before it.
Trends in the periodic table for (1)Atomic Radius and (2)Ionization Energy/Electronegativity
(1)up, and across; decrease.
(2)up, and across; increase.
VSEPR
Valence Shell Electron Pairs Repulsion
How do you write a Net Ionic Eq’n?
1) Make sure the eq’n is balanced properly, verify with a periodic table.
2) Any “aqueous” element should be broken apart into separate elements. (ie. Cu(NO3)2(aq) becomes Cu2+ and (NO3)2 -)
*always write the charges after the compound has been broken up*
*never break up or rewrite a solid, liquid or gas. ONLY aqueous/dissolved in alcohol*
3)The spectator ion(s) will be whatever is aqueous and is identical before and after the arrow
4)Re-write the eq’n without the spectator ion(s)
Polar Covalent Bond
When electrons are not shared evenly by two atoms.
Dipole
Shows flow of electrons (where electrons want to sit on an atom). Points towards atom with higher EN, and is more partially negative. Only used in polar covalent bonds.
To determine if its a Polar Moelcule, find the resultant vector of the _____.
Dipoles
If EN is 0 it is a(n) (1)____ _______ ___.
If EN is greater than 0 but less than 0.5 it is a(n) (2)___-_______ ____.
If EN is greater than/equal to 0.5 but less than 1.7 it is a(n) (3)______ ______ ____.
If EN is greater than 1.7 is is a(n) (4)______ ____.
(1)Pure Covalent Bond
(2)Non-Polar Bond
(3)Polar Covalent Bond
(4)Ionic Bond
Molecular Compounds
2 Nonmetals. Use mono/di/tri/tetra/penta/hexa/hepta/octa/nona/deca prefixes.
Ionic Compound
Metal Cation and Non-Metal Anion
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass of reactants = mass of products
The product of a Combustion reaction is always….
Water (H2O) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Using the addition of A, B, C and D explain
(1)Synthesis
(2)Decomposition
(3)Single Displacement
(4)Double Displacement
(1) A + B –> AB
(2) AB –> A + B
(3) A + BC –> AC + B
(4) AB + CD –> AD + BC
Neutralization Rxn vs Precipitation
Both are Double Displacement Reactions. A Neutralization Reaction occurs when an acid and a base produce a salt and water. A precipitation occurs when a precipitate is formed.
For a single displacement reaction to occur in A + BC, A must be _______ B on the reactivity series. If not, there is no reaction.
Above
In order for AB + CD –> AD + CB, either A or C must be a (1)______ and the other must be a (2)_______. They cannot both be one, otherwise there will be no reaction.
(1)Solid
(2)Aqueous
To separate the products of a double displacement reaction…..
Use a funnel with a filter in it and separate the solid from the liquid. Use a retort stand, ring clamp and beaker.
What is Avagadro’s constant and what does it represent?
6.022×10^23; a constant for a ‘mole’.
What is stoichiometry?
The quantitative study of reactants and products in a chemical reaction.
A mole is defined as the number of atoms in 12 g of _______-__.
Carbon-12
(1)Mass—>Mole—>Atoms
(2)Atoms—>Mole—>Mass
(1)Divide by molar mass—>multiply by Avagadro’s Constant.
(2)Divide by Avagadro’s Constant—>Multiply by Molar Mass
Empirical Formula
Simplest Ratio of a Compound
Molecular Formula
Actual Formula of a compound
To find the empirical formula of a compound use this rhyme!
percent to mass
mass to mole
divide by small
multiply til whole!
How does one determine the percent composition of (for example) water?
Since there are 2 H’s in H2O, multiply the molar mass of hydrogen by 2 and divide that number by the molar mass of H2O. multiply this number by 100%. For oxygen, do the same thing except do not multiply the molar mass by two. these are your percent compositions!
In a Carbon-Hydrogen Combustion Analyzer, what are the three main components? What is coating each absorber? Why is the CO2 absorber second?
Oven/Furnace, Water Absorber (coated in magnesium perchlorate) and CO2 Absorber (coated in sodium hydroxide). The CO2 absorber is second because the whole purpose of this analyzer is to determine the amount of H2O and CO2 in terms of mass. When one reacts CO2 with NaOH, H2O is formed. It is second so that there is without a doubt, a value for the mass of H2O
Saturated vs Unsaturated
Saturated: A solution having a relatively large quantity of solute per unit volume of solution
Unsaturated: A solution having a relatively small quantity of solute per unit volume of solution
Dipole-Dipole Forces
Intermolecular (attraction within a molecule)
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