chemistry

Binary Covalent Compounds

Two nonmetals

 

Binary Covalent Compounds

The first word is the name of the least electronegative element. 

The second word is the root of the most electronegative elements + “-ide”. 

 

Binary Covalent Compounds

*The prefix “mono” is only used with the second element, never the first. 

All other prefixes are used for both first and second elements in the formula, as needed

mono
di
tri
tetra     
penta
hexa
hepta
octa       
deca
10 
ammonia = nitrogen trihydride
NH3 
hydrogen peroxide = dihydrogen  dioxide
H2O2
ozone  (another form of elemental oxygen
O3 
Binary Ionic Compounds
A metal plus a nonmetal

. A metal plus a nonmetal

 

The first word is the name  of the METAL element. 

 

The second word is the root of the non Metal element + “-ide”. 

 

. Constant charge monatomic cations

 

Many common elements that form cations only form one cation. 

 

Metallic elements in the first two columns of the periodic table, 

Elements in the third column form one cation each.

 

Constant charge monatomic anions

Elements in the last four columns of the periodic table often form anions (EXCEPT for the noble gases, which don’t form ions).;

;

The name of the ion is the root of the element name with “-ide” attached.

;

Variable charge monatomic cations

Many metal elements form two, or even three, different cations.;

;

The charge can be determined from the formula.;

Memorize the following common ions and their possible charges.;

Ions in this case are named with the actual charge as part of the name.;

The charge is given by Roman numerals in parentheses

1. Constant charge polyatomic cations

;

There is one common cation made up of two elements: the ammonium ion, NH4+.;

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It is named “ammonium” when it occurs in a compound. The ions comes from ammonia, NH3

;

Most polyatomic anions;
have suffix “-ate” or “-ite”. A few end in “-ide”.;
ate
“an element + some oxygens” with the most oxygens ends in;
ite
;the anion “an element + some oxygens” with the least oxygens ends in

hydrogen carbonate ion

;

Many of the polyatomic anions that have a charge larger than one can also combine with hydrogen. The ion is now named as;
“dihydrogen + anion” and the charge changes by two.
If two hydrogens are present, we have;
“per-” and “hypo-” are used.;
More than two possible anions from an element plus oxygen, the prefixes

1. Constant charge monatomic anions

;

Become acids when combined with enough H+ ions to balance the charges.;

;

F;
fluoride ion ; ; ;;
Cl
chloride ion ; ; ;
Br;;
bromide ion;
;I;;
iodide ion

2. Constant charge polytomic anions

;

have either the suffix “-ate” or “-ite”.;

A few end in “-ide”.

;

By convention, the polyatomic anion;

;

containing “an element + some oxygens” with the most oxygens ends in “-ate”;

and the anion “an element + some oxygens” with the least oxygens ends in “-ite”.;

;

2. Constant charge polytomic anions

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For ions with more than two possible oxygen combinations, we use the prefixes “per” and “hypo”;

;

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