Chemistry

Osmosis
Involves semipermeable membrane. Net flow across membrane into a more concentrated solution
Semipermeable Membrane
Contains submicroscopic pores that allow water molecules passage
Reverse Osmosis
Water forced across membrane into a less concentrated solution. (Must have external pressure)
Osmotic Pressure
Builds up on one side, pushes back into the other until equilibrium is met.
Isotonic

Same concentration of 

solute in and out of cell

Hypertonic

 Higher concentration of solute outside cell than inside 

 

Hypotonic
 Lower concentration of solute outside cell than inside
Water Fact #1
Water expands as it freezes. At 0° Celcius it freezes and melts simoultaneously.
Water Fact #2
Water is densest at 4° 
Freezing Point Depression 

Colligative property that says that adding a solute lowers the freezing 

point

 

http://chemistry.about.com/od/solutionsmixtures/a/freezingpointde.-Nxc.htm

Boiling Point Elevation

Colligative property that says that adding a solute will raise the boiling 

point


 

http://chemistry.about.com/od/solutionsmixtures/a/boilingpointele.-NxZ.htm

Colligative 
Of or relating to the binding together of molecules
Surface Tension
Elastic tendency found on surface of a liquid. Is caused by Hydrogen bonds.
Cohesive Forces
Forces of attraction between molecules  of a single substance
Water Fact #3
At the surface of any body of water there is a  constant exchange of molecules from one phase to the other. (Evaporation, Condensation) Occurs because sometimes the water molecules are moving fast enough to overcome the hydrogen bonds and escape into the gaseous phase or vice versa
Water Fact #4
Evaporating Molecules take their kinectic energy with them,  lowers average kinectic energy  of liquid and it is cooled
Water Fact #5
Water molecules are ‘sticky’ because of the hydrogen bonds
Specific Heat
The quantity o f heat required to change the temperature of 1 gram of a substance of 1 degree C
Heat of Melting
The amount of heat energy required to change a solid to a liquid
Heat of Freezing
Energy released when liquid freezes
heat of Vaporization
Amount of energy to change liquid to a gas
Forumla Mass
Sum of the atomic masses of the elements in the chemical formula
Avogadros Number
A mole
Molar Mass
1 Mole of the substance, grams per mole
Exothermic
Net Release of Energy
Endothermic
Net Absorption of energy
Entropy
Measure of natural spreading of energy
Activation Energy
Minimum Energy Required to overcome the energy barrier
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