chemistry

chemistry
the study of matter
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
chemical symbol
using one or two letters to represent an element; 1st one capital all others lower case
solution
mixture in which particles of different substances are evenly mixed
proton
positively charged atomic particle found in the nucleus of the atom
solid
phase of matter with a definite shape and volume; particles are barely moving (vibrating)
pure substance
a substance that is the same throughout; elements and compounds are examples
liquid
phase of matter with a definite volume but no definite shape; particles are moving quickly and slip past one another
chemical formula
group of symbols for a compound that show the kind and number of atoms
electron
negatively charged atomic particle found orbiting the nucleus
atom
the smallest piece of an element that cannot be broken down
element
pure substance made up of one kind of atom (found on the Periodic Table
mixture
matter made up of 2 or more different substances – substances do not change
neutron
atomic particle with no charge – found in the nucleus of the atom
electron cloud model
most recent theory of atomic structure
electrons move around the outside of the nucleus
molecule
2 or more atoms, chemically combined (can be the same type of atoms or different)
nucleus
central core of an atom; protons and neutrons found here; makes up most of the mass of an atom
plasma
phase of matter with no definite shape or volume; particles are electrically charged and moving quicker than a gas
compound
substance made of 2 or more kinds of atoms, chemically combined, always in the same ratio
gas
phase of matter with no definite shape or volume; particles are moving so quickly some escape the substance
Periodic Table of the Elements
organized chart that lists all known elements and information about them
melting
transition from a solid to a liquid by adding energy (ice cube turns to liquid)
solidification
transition from a liquid to a solid by taking away energy (water freezes)
condensation
transition from gas to a liquid by taking away energy (sweat on a cold glass)
vaporization
transition from a liquid to a gas by adding energy and going through the boiling point (water boiling on the stove)
evaporation
transition from liquid to a gas on the surface of the liquid without reaching boiling point
deposition
transition from a gas to a solid without going through liquid phase by taking away energy (frost)
sublimation
transition from a solid to a gas without going through the liquid phase by adding energy (dry ice getting smaller)
homogeneous mixture
substance in which components are evenly mixed – same throughout
(milk)
heterogeneous mixture
substance in which components are not evenly mixed – not the same throughout (trail mix)
colloid
mixture in which particles are mixed by not dissolved (shaving cream, paint, gelatin, smoke, fog)
suspension
heterogeneous mixture in which some particles settle out (Italian salad dressing, silty river water)
solute
substance that is dissolved in another substance (salt dissolved in water)
solvent
substance that does the dissolving (water in a salt water solution)
universal solvent
water – because it dissolves so many things
solubility
measure of how much solute can be dissolved in a certain amount of solvent at a specific temperature
saturated
a solution that has dissolved all the solute it can hold at a specific temperature
unsaturated
substance that can dissolve more solute
supersaturated
a solution that contains more solute than normal at a specific temperature
alloy
metals in which two or more solids are dissolved together (bronze, brass, stainless steel)
dilute
solution that has a small amount of solute compared to the amount of solvent
concentrated
solution that contains a large amount of solute compared to the amount of solvent
chemical property
trait that explains how matter reacts or doesn’t react with other matter (examples: reactivity and flammability)
density
amount of matter in a certain amount of space (mass/volume)
flammability
ability to burn
physical property
trait that can be observed without changing or trying to chance a substance (ex: texture, shape, mass, volume)
volume
amount of space something takes up
can use: length x width x height
or using water displacement to determine
property
trait or characteristic of matter
reactivity
ability to combine with other matter
mass
amount of matter in a substance