Chemistry

Anion
An atom that gains electrons
Cation
An atom that loses electrons
There are ___ naturally occuring radioactive isotopes.
50
bonding capacity
the number of electrons an atom needs to fill its valence energy shell
Radioactive isotopes can be used:
-to determine age or rocks, fossils & artifacts
-as tracers/tags to show where chemical reactions are occuring (PET; detects cancer radiation)
-to preserve food & treat cancer
Electronegativity
ability of an atom to attract electrons (determined by number of protons; oxygen has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen)
Hydrogen bonds
-links together molecules
-found between polar molecules
Acid and base neutralize, forming…
water and salt
pH of blood
7.4
buffers
prevent sharp rises/falls of pH; weak acid or base
Large organic molecules:
What are?
Where found?
-carbohydrates (CHO)
-proteins
POLYMERS
Found in living things
-lipids (fats)
-nucleic acid
Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation)
“Building” Monomers to a polymer
H20 is removed; monomers connected by an oxygen
Energy MUST be added
Eg. Photosynthesis
Hydrolysis
“Splitting”
Polymer –> Monomer
H20 must be added
Energy is released
Eg. Respiration
Carbohydrates (CHO)
basic energy source of life
made up of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen
C:H:O = 1:2:1
Structure is linear chain or ring
Isomer
molecule has same formula, different structure

Eg. 3 isomers of C6H12O6: glucose, fructose, & galactose

monosaccharides
simple sugars, used for fuel, converted to other organic molecules, combined into polymers
Eg. glucose, fructose, galactose
Disaccharides
2 simple sugars; double sugar
Eg. maltose, sucrose, lactose
glucose
main energy source for all cells
fructose
sweetest sugar; in fruit
galactose
least sweet sugar
maltose
malt sugar
= glucose + glucose
sucrose
Table sugar
= glucose + fructose
lactose
milk sugar
= glucose + galactose
polysaccharides
starches/complex sugars; many sugar units
Eg. cellulose, gycogen, plant starch, chitin
cellulose
plant cell walls
chain of inverse sugars
can’t digest (without help of bacteria, which cows & termites have)
fiber
durable, flexible, most organic compound found on Earth
glycogen
animal starch; stored in liver & muscle cell
highly branched
plant starch
stored in plant vacuoles
Eg. bread, corn, potato
chitin
exoskeletons of insects & crustations; fungi cell wall
proteins
3D; 2 or more polypeptides; makes up cell parts, cell enzymes, collagen, & some hormones; accounts for variations between individuals of the same species; nutrients – provide energy
made up of C, H, O, N
polypeptide
a chain of many amino acids
Amino acids
building blocks of protein; 20;

ALL have:
>AMINO GROUP (-NH2
>ACID GROUP (-COOH –> “carboxyl” group)
>CENTRAL CARBON w/ HYDROGEN (–C-H)
>R (radical) GROUP (varies; determines characteristics of the amino acid)

Peptide bond
special bond between 2 amino acids (between the amino group of 1 amino acide, and the acid group of the other amino acid)

many combos
protein type determined by DNA

Essential amino acids
12; cannot make in body and must be obtained daily through food
denaturation
the protein loses shape and no longer functions; irreversible

could have been damaged by heat/acid

Eg. raw egg white + heat –> boiled egg white

lipids
fats(triglycerides), oils, waxes, phospholipids, cholesterol, steroids, & chlorophyll

used for building cell parts (cell membrane) and for energy reserves

C,H,O
hydrocarbons

tryglyceride
1 glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains

hydrophobic

saturated fat
“bad”; low density lipoprotein
every carbon is filled with H
NO double bonded carbons
solid at room temperature
hard to mix with water
unsaturated fat
“good”; High density lipoprotein
not all C filled with H
1 or more double bonded carbons
liquid at room temperature (because of crooked shape; can’t compact)

vegetable/fish oil

monounsaturated fat
one double bond between carbons
polyunsaturated fats
2 or more double bonds between carbons
phospholipid
2 fatty acids attached to glycerol (opposed to 3)
3rd hydroxyl group of gycerol is joined by phosphate group PO3(-2)
Amphipathic
Big part of ALL cell membranes
amphipathic
has both polar/nonpolar regions;
hydrophillic sides will shield hydrophobic sides from water
steroids
4 fused rings of carbon atoms
use of cholesterol
animal cell membranes
production of sex hormones
vitamin D
stucture development of protein (4 degrees)
1) Primary structure — long chain of amino acids
2) Secondary structure — alpha helix (coiling)shape
3)tertiery structure — folding; bond break easily with acid/heat
4) Quaternary structure — multiple poly peptides join and become a protein
nucleic acids
-used to control cell activities
-carries genetic information
-composed of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
nucleotides
building blocks of nucleic acids
sugar + nitrogen base (5-carbon sugar) + phosphate (difference between nucleic acid and a protein)
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
double strand
found mainly in cell nucleus
RNA
ribonucleic acid
found in both nucleus and cytoplasm
relates messages
triple strand
enzyme
-protein
-catalyst (lowers the amound of needed activation energy w/o increasing heat)
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, NITROGEN
1 enzyme per reaction
often ends in “-ase”
active site
specific part that matches shape w/ a substance “substrate” that enzyme acts on
substrate
a substance that starts a reaction; reactant