study of the composition, structue, and properties of matter, the processes and accompanying energy changes matetr undergoes
organic chemistry
sturdy of most carbon-containing compounds
inorganic chemistry
study of non-organic substances
physical chemistry
study of properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy
analytical chemistry
identification of components and composition of materials
study of processes and substances occurring in living things
theoretical chemistry
use of math and computers to understand principles behind chemical behavior and to design/predict properties of new compounds
basic research
used for the sake of gaining knowledge
applied research
used for solving a specific problem
two vital components of matter
takes up space and has mass
smallest unit of matter that maintains the chemical identity of that element
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances (made of one type of atom)
a substance the can be broken into simpler, stable substances (made of 2+ elements that are chemically bonded)
physical properties
can be observed or measured without changing the substance
physical change
does not involve a change in identity (burning, cutting, grinding, melting)
chemical property
relates to a substance’s ability to change into a new substance
chemical change (reaction)
when 1+ substances are transformed into different substances
blend of 2+ kinds of matter (each keeps individual properties)
a mixture that has an overall uniform composition
a mixture that is not uniform throughout composition
pure substance
has a fixed composition; every sample has the same composition and the same characteristics
testable statement
broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena
SI base unit for mass
kilogram (kg)
SI base unit for length
meter (m)
a measure of the gravitational pull on matter
amount of space occupied by an object; measured in cubic meters; length x width x height
ratio of mass to volume; measured in kilograms per cubic meters; mass/volume
closeness of measurements to the correct/accepted value of the quantity measured
closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way
four rules of sigfigs
1.Zeroes between nonzeroes are sig.
2.Zeroes in front of all nonzeroes are not sig.
3.Zeroes at the end of a number and to the right of a decimal are sig.
4.If a zero at the end of a number and to the left of a decimal has not been measured/estimated (is a placeholder) is NOT. If there is a decimal after a zero, then YES.
dalton’s atomic theory
all matter is made of atoms; atoms of the same element are identical; atoms cannot be subdivided, created, destroyed; atoms of differeent elements combine in whole-number ratios; atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged in chem. reactions
law of conservation of mass
atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed
law of definite proportions
atoms of a given element are identical
law of multiple proportions
atoms of different elements combine in whole-number ratios to form compounds
avagadro’s number
6.022 x 10^23
quantum numbers
used to describe properties of orbitals and electrons in those orbitals
Hund’s Rule
orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any can be occupied by a second electron
Pauli Exclusion Principle
no two electrons in the same orbital can have the same set of quantum numbers
Aufbau Principle
and electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that will receive it