Chap 12- Limiting Reactants (LR)
limit the amount of product produced
Chap 12- Stoichiometry
the study of the measure of the amount of its substances that are involved in reactions
Chap 12- Excess (E)
extra reactant that does not get used
Chap 12- Law of Conservation of Mas
you cannot create or destroy matter, you cannot end with more
Chap 12- Percent Yield
Chap 12- How to find Limiting Reactants
Chap 12- Mole-Mole
Chap 12- Mass-Mol
Chap 12- Mass-Mass
Chap 12- Mole-Mass
Chap 12- Theoretical Yield
Chap 13- Solid
a phase of matter that has a low compressibility, a high density, and a definite shape
Chap 13- Liquid
a phase of matter that has medium compressibility, a medium density, and takes the shape of it’s container
Chap 13- Gas
a phase of matter which has high compressibility, low density, and no definite shape.
Chap 13- Boiling Point
the temperature were a substance boils
Chap 13- Melting Point
the temperature where a assistance melts into a liquid
Chap 13- Phase Diagram (a.k.a But Crack Diagram)
Chap 13- Sublimation
going from a sold phase straight to gas
Chap 13- Triple Point
the point where all three phases of matter are at equilibrium
Chap 13- Graham’s Law
The lighter the gas, the faster it spreads
Chap 13- Diffusion
from high —> low, rate depends on mass
Chap 13- Law of Partial Pressure
Chap 13- Critical Point
The highest temperature at which a substance can no longer exist as a liquid, only as a gas
Chap 13- Freezing and Boiling Point Graph



Chap 14- STP
1atm,and 273k
Chap 14- Particle Motion
rapid, fast, elastic collisions, NO kinetic energy is lost
Chap 14- Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT n=moles
Chap 14- To find molar mass
M= DRT/P M=molar mass
Chap 14- Rule for dissolving
Like dissolves like
Chap 14- To find density
D= MP/RT M= molar mass
Chap 14- Combined Gas Law
Chap 14- Avagadro’s Law
Chap 14- Molar Volume
The volume occupied by one mole of a substance- Mv
Chap 15- Boiling Elevations and Freezing Point Depression
The higher the concentration in the solution the higher the boiling point
Chap 15- Colligative Properties
Depend on the concentration of the solution
1. color
2. texture
3. smell/taste
4. electrolytes
5. boiling point/ melting point
Chap 15- Dilute
less concentrated
Chap 15- Concentrated
Very Concentrated
Chap 15- Colloid
heterogeneous, Tyndall effect, ex. fog
Chap 15- Tyndall effect
when light scatters molecules, like in Fog, or flour in bottle
Chap 15- Molarity
is concentration
Chap 15- saturated
it is at its capacity for matter it can hold
Chap 15- unsaturated
it has space to carry more matter
Chap 15- Factors to inc. solubility
1. stirring
2. heating
3. inc. surface area
4. concentrations
Chap 15- Henry’s Law
Inc. Solubility= Inc. Pressure ex. soda
Chap 15- solutions
solute- smaller amount
solvent- bigger amount(water)
Chap 15- solubility and temperature
inc. temp. = dec. solubility

inc. temp.= inc. solubility

Chap 15- supersaturated
is holding more matter then normal
Chap 15- Molarity
Chap 15- Molality
Chap 19- Indicators
Litmus paper, Phenolphthalein , Ph paper
Chap 19- Phenolphthalein
turns pink ONLY for BASES
Chap 19- Litmus paper
Chap 19- Ph
hot colors are acid, cool colors are base, green is neutral.
1-6= acid
7= neutral
8-14= base
Chap 19- Amphoteric
Being both an acid and a base, like water H2O
Chap 19- Lewis Acids and Bases
Acids are H DONORS
Chap 19- Conjugate Acid/Base
related opposite
Chap 19- Neutralization
when an acid and a base are used to make water and a salt and the base and the acid are in equilibrium, when it is turned neutral.
Chap 19- Titration
a way to find concentration of an acid or base by neutralization it in a solution with a unknown concentration.    MAVA  =  MBVB
Chap 19- Acid Properties
sour, corrosive,is an electrolyte, covalent, ionizes, dehydrating agent, exists as an aqueous solution
Chap 19- Base Proprties
bitter, corrosive, slimy, is an electrolyte, ionic, dissolves, breaks up oil and fat, dehydrating agent
Chap 19- To find the Ph or POH
-log it to find the Ph, and -log to find the POH and subtract from 14. The number you log must be the Molarity (M)