Chemistry

Mg
Magnesium
N
Nitrogen
C
Carbon
F
Fluorine
Ne
Neon
O
Oxygen
Na
Sodium
B
Boron
Be
Beryllium
Al
Aluminum
Si
Silicon
S
Sulfur
P
Phosphorus
Ar
Argon
Ar
Argon
Cl
Chlorine
Sc
Scandium
K
Potassium
Ti
Titanium
Ca
Calcium
Fe
Iron
V
Vanadium
Co
Cobalt
Cu
Copper
Ni
Nickel
Ga
Gallium
Zn
Zinc
As
Arsenic
Ge
Germanium
Sr
Strontium
Ag
Silver
Br
Bromine
Se
Selenium
Rb
Rubidium
Kr
Krypton
Sb
Antimony
Sn
Tin
Cs
Cesium
I
Iodine
Pt
Platinum
H
Hydrogen
Ba
Barium
Hg
Mercury
Au
Gold
Cr
Chromium
Mn
Manganese
(C2H302)-1
Acetate
(NH4)+1
Ammonium
Pb
Lead
Bi
Bismuth
(CN)-1
Cyanide
(CO3)-2
Carbonate
(ClO2)-1
Chlorite
(ClO3)-1
Chlorate
(CrO4)-2
Chromate
(H2PO4)-1
Dihydrogen Phosphate
(Cr2O7)-2
Dichromate
(HCO3)-1
Hydrogen Carbonate (Bicarbonate)
(HPO4)-2
Hydrogen Phosphate
(OH)-1
Hydroxide
(ClO)-1
Hypochlorite
(MnO4)-1
Permanganate
(MnO4)-1
Permanganate
(NO3)-1
Nitrate
(NO2)-1
Nitrite
(ClO4)-1
Perchlorate
(PO3)-3
Phosphite
(PO4)-3
Phosphate
(SO4)-2
Sulfate
(C2O4)-2
Oxalate
(SCN)-1
Thiocyanate
(SO3)-2
Sulfite
Li
Lithium
He
Helium
Matter
Anything that has mass and occupies space;
Solid, liquid, gas;
Solid- Fixed shape and volume
Liquid- Has fixed volume but is not rigid in shape-takes shape of container
Gas-Nor a fixed volume nor a rigid shape
Pure Substances (Fixed composition and a unique set of properties)
Elements
Compounds
Mixtures- Composed of two or more substances
Heterogeneous (Coarse)
Homogeneous (Solutions)
Element
Type of matter that cannot be broken down into two or more pure substances
113 known elements, 91 occur naturally
Identified by its symbol consisting of one or two letters, usually derived from its name, or latin name
Compound
A pure substance containing more than one element
eg: Water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen
Have fixed compositions- A given compound always contains the same elements in the same percentages by mass
To resolve compounds into elements, different methods can be used.
Heat, Electrolysis
Mixture
A mixture contains two or more substances combined in such a way that each substance retains its chemical identity.
Homogeneous- Composition is the same throughout. Another name is solution, made up of solvent, and solute.
Heterogeneous- Composition varies throughout i.e. Rocks.
Many different methods can be used to seperate the components of a mixture.
Filtration, Distillation, Chromatography
All gaseous mixtures including air are solutions
Scientific measurements
Metric system
Mega (M)
10^6
Kilo (k)
10^3
Deci (d)
10^-1
Centi (c)
10^-2
Milli (m)
10^-3
Micro
10^-6
Nano (n)
10^-9
Pico (p)
10^-12
Length – Meter
1 cm = 10^-2m
1 mm = 10^-3m
1 km = 10^3 m
1 nm = 10^-9m
Volume – Cubic centimeters
Liters
Millimeters
1 cm(3) = (10^-2m)cubed = (10^-6m) cubed
1 L = (10^-3m) cubed = (10^3cm) cubed
I mL= (10^-3L)= (10^-6m)cubed
1 mL = 1 cm cubed
Mass – Grams
Kilograms
Milligrams
1 g = (10^-3kg)
1 mg= (10^-3g)
1 Mg= (10^6 g) = (10^3)kg
Mass
Measure of the amount of matter in an object
Weight
Measure of gravitational force acting on the object

Determine mass by weighing

Temperature
Celsius (C)
Kelvin (K)
Fahrenheit (F)
Intensive properties
Must be independent of amount
Extensive properties
Dependent on amount (mass and volume)
Chemical properties
These are observed when the substance takes part in a chemical reaction, which converts it into a new substance.
Physical properties
Observed without changing the chemical identity of a substance.
(Melting point, boiling point)
Equation for density
d=m/v
Solubility
The process by which a solute dissolves in a solvent. (Physical)

Number of grams of the substance that dissolves in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature.

Saturated
The point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance. This point, the saturation point, depends on the temperature of the liquid as well as the chemical nature of the substances involved.
Unsaturated
Being able to dissolve more solute.
Supersaturated
If a change in conditions (e.g. cooling) mean that the concentration is actually higher than the saturation point, the solution has become supersaturated.
Supersaturated
If a change in conditions (e.g. cooling) mean that the concentration is actually higher than the saturation point, the solution has become supersaturated.
John Dalton’s Atomic Theory
An element is composed of tiny particles called atoms.
In an ordinary chemical reaction, atoms move from one substance to another, but no atoms of any element disappears or is changed into an atom of another element.
Compounds are formed when atoms of two or more elements combine.
Law of conservation of mass
There is no detectable change in mass in an ordinary chemical reaction. If atoms are conserved in a reaction, mass will be conserved.
Law of constant composition
This tells us that a compound always contains the same elements in the same proportions by mass. If the atom ratio of the elements in a compound is fixed, their proportions by mass also be fixed.
Law of multiple proportions
When two elements form more than one compound. In these compounds, the masses of one elementthat combine with a fixed mass of the second element are in ratio of small whole numbers.
Electrons
Carry a negative charge
They are equal to protons
Found in an outer region if an atom where they form what amounts to a cloud of negative charge.
Protons
Positively charged
Cancel out electrons
Found in the nucleus
Neutrons
Neutral charge
In the nucleus
Atomic Number
Number of protons and electrons
In a neutral atom, protons and electrons are the same
Mass number
protons + neutrons
Isotopes
Atoms that contain the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
Nuclear symbol
Mass number (top), Atomic number (bottom) Element symbol
Periods
Horizontal rows in the periodic table
Groups
Vertical columns in the periodic table
Main group elements
1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18
Transition metals
Groups 3-12
Post transition metals
13 14 15
Alkali metals
Group 1 at the far left of the table
Alkaline earth metals
Group 2
Halogens
Group 17
Noble (Unreactive) gases
Group 18
Molecule
Two or more atoms that may combine with one another to form an uncharged molecule.Held by strong forces called covalent bonds. Mostly represented by molecular formulas.
Ion
When an atom loses or gains electrons
Cations
Metal atoms typically tend to lose electrons to form positively charges ions called cations.
Anions
Nonmetal atoms form negative ions by gaining electrons. They are called anions.
Ionic bonds
The electrical forces between oppositely charged charged ions that hold together compounds.
Naming Ions
Monoatomic cations take the name of the metal from which they are derived.
Roman numerals to distinguish charge.
Named by adding suffix -ide to the stem of the name of the nonmetal from which they are derived.
Ionic compounds
First word names the cation
Second names the anion
Binary molecular compounds
Two nonmetals
First word gives the name of the element w/ Greek prefix
Second word consists of appropriate Greek prefix, stem of the name, the suffix ide.
Di-
Tri-
Tetra-
2
3
4
Penta-
Hexa-
Hepta-
5
6
7
Octa
Nona
Deca
8
9
10
Oxoacids
Oxygen and hydrogen
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