Chemistry

Determining Limiting Reactant

 

Calculate moles of on reactant and use molar ratio to convert to a product. What ever has the least amount of product formed is the limiting reactant.

 

Molarity

Mol of solute

—————-

liters of soultion

Diluting

 

C1V1=C2V2

Strong Electolytes

 

Souluable ionic compounds

strong acids and strong bases

Weak Electrolytes

 

Exist as compounds

Slightly Soluable(insoluable)

Weak Acids and Bases

 

Nonelectrolytes
Molecular Compounds
Areehenius Definition

Acid-Releases H+ in aqueous solution.

Base-Release OH- in aq sol

Oxodation States (Free element)
0
Oxidation States -Monotomic Ion
Charge
Oxidation States in compounds

Fluorine->-1

Hydrogen->+1 (bond to nonmetal) or -1(bond to metal)

Oxygen->-2

 

Oxidizing Agent
A Substance that causes oxidation of another substance. gains electrons, is reduced.
Reducing Agent
A substance that causes reduction. Loses electrons. Is oxidized.
Psi to Atm Relationship
14.7 psi = 1 atm
Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT

Molar Volume

 

The Voluem ocupied by one mole of a substance

 

Molar Volume= V/n = RT/P

Average particle Kinetic Energy
KE=1/2(m)v^2
Delta E
Delta E = q + w
Work
w= – p(delta v)
Heat
q=mC(delta T)
Change in energy
Change in energy of the system= – Change in energy of surroundings
Formation Enthalpies
/H rxn = /Hf products – /Hf reactants
Light Wave Nature
c = wavelength(frequency)
Light particle nature
E=h(frequency)
Kinetic Energy of Electron
KE electron = E light binding energy
De Broglie Relation
Wavelength=h/(mv)
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
?xm?v;or= to h/(4pi)
Principal Quantum Number
n= 1, 2, 3
Angular Momentum Quantum Number
L=0,…n-1
Magnetic Quantam Number
mL = – L,….,L
Bond Energy

The energy required to break 1 mole of the bond in the gas phase.

 

Always Positive

 

 

Breaking a bond

Requires energy

 

?H is positive

Forming a Bond

Releases energy

 

?H is negative

Simple Cubic Unit Cell

Edge Length=2r

Contains 1 atom

coordination nuber = 6

 

Body-Centered Cubic

Edge Length = 4r/Root(3)

Contains Two Atoms

Coordination Number=8

Face Centered Cubic

Edge Length=2r(root(2))

contains 4 atoms

coordination number=12

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