Chemistry

Mass
Amount of matter
Volume
How much space it occupies
Matter
Anything that has mass or volume
Characteristics of Matter

Physical Properties-color, odor, shape, etc.

Chemical properties- ability to change into new substance in result of chemical change

Atoms
Smallest unit of matter
Parts of an Atom

Protons- positive

Neutrons- no charge

Electrons- negative

Atomic number
Number of protons
Atomic Mass
Number of Protons and Neutrons
Chemical Elements
Made up of one type of atom
Isotopes
Have same number of protons and electrons, but differ in the number of neutrons
Radioactive Isotopes
Unstable nucleus- break down at specific rate
What are compounds and molecules made up of?
2 or more elements.
Ionic Bonding
Give and take of electrons
Covalent Bonds
Sharing of electrons
Chemical Reactions
Anytime a chemical bond is formed or broken, a reaction occurs
Structural formulas
Show arrangement of elements in a compound
Elements that make up the human body
Carbon, Hidrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen (CHON)
Polarity
A relation between opposite attributes or tendencies
Why is a water molecule polar?
It has an uneven distrubution of electrons.
Cohesion
An attraction between molecules of the same substance
Adhesion
An attraction between molecules of different substances
Mixture
Material composed of two or more elements/compounds that are physically mixed together, but not chemically combined.
What are the two Mixtures made with water
Solution and Suspention
Solution
Mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed
What are the two parts of a Solution?

Solute: dissolved matter in a solution

Solvent: Does the dissolving

Suspension
Mixture of water and non-dissolved materials ex. blood
Acids
Any compound that forms H+ ions in the solution, higher concentrations of H+ ions than water, and have a pH values below 7.
Bases
Any compound that forms OH- ions in the solution, lower concentrations of H+ ions than water, and has  pH values above 7
Buffers
Chemical substances made by the body to regulate pH
pH scale

1: hydrochloric acid

7: Water

12: Milk of magnesia