Chemistry

Physical Or Chemical Property :

Boiling Point

Physical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Condensation Point

Physical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Melting Point

Physical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Freezing Point

Physical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Malleability

Physical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Ductility

Physical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Colour

Physical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

State

Physical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Solubility

Physical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Crystal Formation

Physical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Conductivity

Physical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Magnetism

Physical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Ability To Burn

Chemical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Flash Point

Chemical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Behavior In Air

Chemical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Reaction With Water

Chemical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Reaction With Acids

Chemical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Reaction To Heat.

Chemical Property
Physical Or Chemical Property :

Reaction to Red & Blue Litmus.

Chemical Property
The observe a chemical property you must see a ___________ _______ .
Chemical Change
During a chemical reaction, energy is always __________ or _________.
During a chemical reaction, energy is always absorbed or released.
During a chemical reaction, __________ is always __________ or _________.
During a chemical reaction, energy is always absorbed or released.
What was Aristotle’s theory on matter ?
That all mater was composed of fire, earth, water and air.
What was Democritus’s theory on matter?
Matter was made up of tiny particles, that could not be divided into smaller pieces.
Democritus called modern day atoms, _____, meaning ___________.
Democritus called modern day atoms, Atomos, meaning Invisible.
__________ was better known and more respected than __________ so although _________’s theory on matter was closer to our theory today, people believed ________’s theory for about 2000 years after __________ & ___________’s theories were brought up in ____BC.
Aristotle was better known and more respected than Democritus so although Democritus’s theory on matter was closer to our theory today, people believed Aristotle’s theory for about 2000 years after Democritus & Aristotle’s theories were brought up in 400BC.
Aristotle & Democritus were ________ _____________.
Aristotle & Democritus were Greek Philosophers.
Alchemy = Combination of ________ & _________.
Alchemy = Combination of Science & Magic.
Mercury was discover through ________ .
Mercury was discover through Alchemy.
_______ measured relationships between volume and pressure of gas.
Robert Boyle measured relationships between volume and pressure of gas.
Robert Boyle measured relationships between _________ and ___________ of gas.
Robert Boyle measured relationships between volume and pressure of gas.
Robert Boyle lived from _____ to _____.
Robert Boyle lived from 1627 to 1691.
Antoine Lavoisier lived from _____ to _____.
Antoine Lavoisier lived from 1743 to 1794.
Antoine Lavoisier measured the _____ of the substances that _______ together and the substance _______ in many_______ _________.
Antoine Lavoisier measured the masses of the substances that reacted together and the substance produced in many chemical reactions.
_________ _________ measured the masses of the substances that reacted together and the substance produced in many chemical reactions.
Antoine Lavoisier measured the masses of the substances that reacted together and the substance produced in many chemical reactions.
_________ _________ discovered that mass is neither produced nor lost during a chemical reaction (Law of Conservation of Mass).
Antoine Lavoisier discovered that mass is neither produced nor lost during a chemical reaction (Law of Conservation of Mass).
Antoine Lavoisier discovered that mass is neither _________ nor _____ during a ________ __________ (Law of Conservation of Mass).
Antoine Lavoisier discovered that mass is neither produced nor lost during a chemical reaction (Law of Conservation of Mass).
Antoine Lavoisier discovered that mass is neither produced nor lost during a chemical reaction (Law ___ ____________ ___ _____).
Antoine Lavoisier discovered that mass is neither produced nor lost during a chemical reaction (Law of Conservation of Mass).
Antoine Lavoisier was a ________ ___________.
Antoine Lavoisier was a French scientist.
The works of _______, _________, ________ & ______ illustrate the role of evidence in the development of the model of the atom.
The works of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr illustrate the role of evidence in the development of the model of the atom.
The works of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr illustrate the role of evidence in the ______________ ____ ____ ________ ___ ____ _______.
The works of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr illustrate the role of evidence in the development of the model of the atom.
John Dalton lived from _____ – _____.
John Dalton lived from 1766-1844.
John Dalton was an ________ ________ & ________.
John Dalton was an English Chemist & Physicist.
John Dalton based his model of the atom on experiments he did in _____________ _______ .
John Dalton based his model of the atom on experiments he did in combining elements.
John Dalton imagined all atoms were like_____ _____, but they had different _________, like ____, _____, and ________.
John Dalton imagined all atoms were like small spheres, but they had different properties like size, mass and colour.
One part of _____ _______ explanation on matter is that all matter is made of small, indivisible particles.
One part of John Daltons explanation on matter is that all matter is made of small, indivisible particles.
One part of _____ _______ explanation on matter is that all the atoms of an element are identical in properties such as size and mass.
One part of John Daltons explanation on matter is that all the atoms of an element are identical in properties such as size and mass.
One part of _____ _______ explanation on matter is that atoms of different elements have different properties.
One part of John Daltons explanation on matter is that atoms of different elements have different properties.
One part of _____ _______ explanation on matter is that atoms of different elements can combine in specific fixed ratios to form new substances.
One part of John Daltons explanation on matter is that atoms of different elements can combine in specific fixed ratios to form new substances.
JJ Thomson lived from _____ – _____ .
JJ Thomson lived from 1856-1940.
JJ Thomson’s theories suggested that _____ of different ________ contained ________ particles that were _________.
JJ Thomson’s theories suggested that atoms of different elements contained smaller particles that were identical.
JJ Thomson’s model stated that all _____ are made of smaller _________ particles put together in different combinations to make the different ________.
JJ Thomson’s model stated that all atoms are made of smaller subatomic particles put together in different combinations to make the different elements.
Ernest Rutherford lived from _____ – _____.
Ernest Rutherford lived from 1871-1937.
___ ________ & ______ _______ worked together in England.
JJ Thomson & Ernest Rutherford worked together in England.
Ernest Rutherford did research at _______ University in Montreal.
Ernest Rutherford did research at McGill University in Montreal.
Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment that lead to the discovery of the ________ of the _____.
Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment that lead to the discovery of the nucleus of the atom.
_______ ___________ performed an experiment that lead to the discovery of the nucleus of the atom.
Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment that lead to the discovery of the nucleus of the atom.
_______ ___________ came up with the bowling ball, tissue paper reference.
Ernest Rutherford came up with the bowling ball, tissue paper reference.
__________ received the Noble Prize in Chemistry in 1908.
Rutherford received the Noble Prize in Chemistry in 1908.
Rutherford received the Noble Prize in Chemistry in _____ .
Rutherford received the Noble Prize in Chemistry in 1908.
Neils Bohr lived from ____ – ____ .
Neils Bohr lived from 1885-1962.
Neils Bohr was a ______ _______.
Neils Bohr was a Danish Physicist.
Neils Bohr worked under __________.
Neils Bohr worked under Rutherford.
Neils Bohr’s experiments partly explained why the _________ charged electrons do not merge with the __________ charged nucleus. Why is this ?
Neils Bohr’s experiments partly explained why the negatively charged electrons do not merge with the positively charged nucleus. This is because electrons can not fall below the lowest energy level.
An ________ can not fall into a _____ under normal circumstances.
An electron can not fall into a nucleus under normal circumstances.
Todays model of the atom is based on a theory called ________ __________.
Todays model of the atom is based on a theory called Quantum Mechanics.
Our current model of an atom can change in the future as scientists learn more about ___ ______ and ____________ _______.
Our current model of an atom can change in the future as scientists learn more about the atom and subatomic particles.
There are ____ elements.
There are 113 elements.
___ naturally occurring elements.
90 naturally occurring elements.
___ synthetic elements.
25 synthetic elements.
All the elements can be divided into 3 groups; ______, _______, _________.
All the elements can be divided into 3 groups; metals, non-metals & metalloids.
Most elements are ______.
Most elements are metals.
Metals are ________ and _______.
Metals are malleable and ductile.
___ elements are non-metals.
17 elements are non-metals.
Some metalloids conduct electricity, but _____ ____ _____ .
Some metalloids conduct electricity, but not very well.
An atom is about _____ in diameter.
An atom is about 10^-10 in diameter.
The three kinds of subatomic particles are; _________, ________ & ________.
The three kinds of subatomic particles are; electrons, protons & neutrons.
Electrons are __________ charged particles.
Electrons are negatively charged particles.
Protones are __________ charged particles.
Protons are positively charged particles.
Neutrons are __________ charged particles.
Neutrons are neutral particles.
Protons & Neutrons are gathered together in the _______.
Protons & Neutrons are gathered together in the nucleus.
________ & ________ are gathered together in the nucleus.
Protons & Neutrons are gathered together in the nucleus.
Protons & Neutrons account for more than ____% of the total mass of an atom.
Protons & Neutrons account for more than 99.9% of the total mass of an atom.
________ & ________ account for more than 99.9% of the total mass of an atom.
Protons & Neutrons account for more than 99.9% of the total mass of an atom.
Electrons account for over ____% of an atom.
Electrons account for over 99.9% of an atom.
________ account for over 99.9% volume of an atom.
Electrons account for over 99.9% volume of an atom.
The number of electrons that can exist in the different energy levels varies.
The number of electrons that can exist in the different energy levels (doesn’t vary/varies).
The number of electrons that can exist in the different energy levels varies.
The lowest energy level is the one (closest to/farthest from) the nucleus.
The lowest energy level is the one closest to the nucleus.
An energy level can be _____, _____ ______ or ________ _____.
An energy level can be empty, partly filled or completely filled.
_______ ; ________ are attracted to each other because they have different charges. This means that ____ can not collapse.
Electrons ; Protons are attracted to each other because they have different charges. This means that atoms can not collapse.
The atomic number of a element indicates the number of _____ it has .
The atomic number of a element indicates the number of protons it has.
The elements in a period are arranged according to ________ ______ _______.
The elements in a period are arranged according to increasing atomic number.
As you move from left to right in a period, each element has one more _______ in its atom.
As you move from left to right in a period, each element has one more protons in its atom.
To help distinguish between the isotopes of an element, each isotope is given a number called the ____ _______.
To help distinguish between the isotopes of an element, each isotope is given a number called the mass number.
The mass number is an integer equal to the total number of ______ & ________ in the ________ of an atom.
The mass number is an integer equal to the total number of protons & neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Why aren’t electrons included in mass number?
Electrons aren’t included in mass number because their mass is too small.
You can determine the number of neutrons in an atom by __________ the atomic number from the _____ number.
You can determine the number of neutrons in an atom by subtracting the atomic number from the mass number.
_____________
ELEMENT SYMBOL.
_____________.
mass number
ELEMENT SYMBOL
atomic number.
The atomic molar mass is the average mass of that specific _________.
The atomic molar mass is the average mass of that specific isotope.
Isotopes of the same element (do/do not) have the same mass.
Isotopes of the same element do not have the same mass.
In general, atoms are neutral, so the number of________ in an atom equals the number of _________.
In general, atoms are neutral, so the number of electrons in an atom equals the number of protons.
Why don’t isotopes of the same element have the same mass?
Because each isotope has a different number of neutrons in its nucleus.
The process of gaining or losing electrons is called __________.
The process of gaining or losing electrons is called ionization.
The result of ionization is the formation of an ____.
The result of ionization is the formation of an ion.
An ion is an __________ charged atom or group of atoms.
At ion is an electrically charged atom or group of atoms.
Positively charged ions are called ______.
Positively charged ions are called cations.
Most cations form when metal atoms _____ ________. When a cation is forming, the ____ ________ usually move to another atom. Electrons are _________ charged. When they leave an atom, the ion that remains is positively charged because it now has more _________ than _________.
Most cations form when metal atoms lose electrons. When a cation is forming the lost electrons usually move to another atom. Electrons are negatively charged. When they leave an atom, the ion that remains is positively charged because it now has more protons than electrons.
An ions ______ is sometimes shown as a superscript after the atomic symbol.
An ions charge is sometimes shown as a superscript after the atomic symbol.
Negatively charged ions are called ______.
Negatively charged ions are called anions. (THINK ONIONS).
Most anions from when non-metals ____ _(#)_ ________.
Most anions from when non-metals gain two electrons.
Most ion formation takes place when ______ & _________ form ionic compounds.
Most ion formation takes place when metals & non-metals form ionic compounds.
Most ion formation takes place when metals & non-metals form _____ __________.
Most ion formation takes place when metals & non-metals form ionic compounds.
Metal atoms tend to form cations by losing electrons to non-metals, which form ______.
Metal atoms tend to form cations by losing electrons to non-metals, which form anions.
Atoms gain or lose electrons so that they have the same number of electrons as the nearest _____ ____. This makes them more ______.
Atoms gain or lose electrons so that they have the same number or electrons as the nearest noble gas. This makes them more stable.
In chemistry, becoming more stable means becoming less _______.
In chemistry, becoming more stable means becoming less reactive.
The elements in the same group or family on the periodic table have similar _______ & ________ ________. One of these properties is reactivity.
The elements in the same group or family on the periodic table have similar physical & chemical properties. One of these properties is reactivity.
An element reactivity is related to the number of _______ in its outer energy level.
An element reactivity is related to the number of electrons in its outer energy level.
Elements are most stable when they have _______ outer energy levels.
Elements are most stable when they have filled outer energy levels.
The process of gaining or losing electrons is called __________.
The process of gaining or losing electrons is called ionization.
The result of ionization is the formation of an ____.
The result of ionization is the formation of an ion.
An ion is an __________ charged atom or group of atoms.
At ion is an electrically charged atom or group of atoms.
Positively charged ions are called ______.
Positively charged ions are called cations.
Most cations form when metal atoms _____ ________. When a cation is forming, the ____ ________ usually move to another atom. Electrons are _________ charged. When they leave an atom, the ion that remains is positively charged because it now has more _________ than _________.
Most cations form when metal atoms lose electrons. When a cation is forming, the lost electrons usually move to another atom. Electrons are negatively charged. When they leave an atom, the ion that remains is positively charged because it now has more protons than electrons.
An ions ______ is sometimes shown as a superscript after the atomic symbol.
An ions charge is sometimes shown as a superscript after the atomic symbol.
Negatively charged ions are called ______.
Negatively charged ions are called anions. (THINK ONIONS).
Most anions from when non-metals ____ _(#)_ ________.
Most anions from when non-metals gain two electrons.
Most ion formation takes place when ______ & _________ form ionic compounds.
Most ion formation takes place when metals & non-metals form ionic compounds.
Most ion formation takes place when metals & non-metals form _____ __________.
Most ion formation takes place when metals & non-metals form ionic compounds.
Metal atoms tend to form cations by losing electrons to non-metals, which form ______.
Metal atoms tend to form cations by losing electrons to non-metals, which form anions.
Atoms gain or lose electrons so that they have the same number of electrons as the nearest _____ ____. This makes them more ______.
Atoms gain or lose electrons so that they have the same number or electrons as the nearest noble gas. This makes them more stable.
In chemistry, becoming more stable means becoming less _______.
In chemistry, becoming more stable means becoming less reactive.
Recall the elements in the same group or family on the periodic table have similar _______ & ________ ________. One of these properties is reactivity.
Recall the elements in the same group or family on the periodic table have similar physical & chemical properties. One of these properties is reactivity.
An element reactivity is related to the number of _______ in its outer energy level.
An element reactivity is related to the number of electrons in its outer energy level.
Elements are most stable when they have _______ outer energy levels.
Elements are most stable when they have filled outer energy levels.
Noble gases are very _____.
Noble gases are very stable.
Noble gases neither gain nor lose _______.
Noble gases neither gain nor lose electrons.
Elements become more stable when they have the same number of electrons in their outer energy level as the nearest _______ _____ does.
Elements become more stable when they have the same number of electrons in their outer energy level as the nearest noble gas does.
The electrons in the outer energy level are called _______ _______.
The electrons in the outer energy level are called valence electrons.
The tendency to gain or lose electrons is sometimes called _________.
The tendency to gain or lose electrons is sometimes called valency.
The term _______ _______ is commonly used to describe the number of electrons an element can gain or lose to combine with other elements.
The term valence number is commonly used to describe the number of electrons an element can gain or lose to combine with other elements.
Elements in the same family have the same number of _________ electrons. This results in similar chemical properties.
Elements in the same family have the same number of valence electrons. This results in similar chemical properties.
From left to right across a period, atoms gain one ________ _________ (and one proton) with each new element.
From left to right across a period, atoms gain one valence electron (and one proton) with each new element.
Within a period, electrons are always added to the same _______ level.
Within a period, electrons are always added to the same energy level.
An element in the second period has electrons in ___ energy levels, and an element in the third period has electrons in ____ energy levels.
An element in the second period has electrons two energy levels, and an element in the third energy level has electrons in three energy levels.
The period number indicates the number of _______ ______ ____.
The period number indicates the number of occupied energy levels.
Another way to understand the patterns by which atoms gain or lose electrons is to look at their ______ ______.
Another way to understand the patterns by which atoms gain or lose electrons is to look at theirs energy levels.
All of the _____ _____ have filled energy levels.
All of the noble gases have filled energy levels.
Atoms tend to gain or lose _______ so that they end up with completely ______ energy levels.
Atoms tend to gain or lose electrons so that they end up with completely filled energy levels.
What is another name for the Octet Rule ?
The Rule of Eight.
What is another name for The Rule of Eight ?
The Octet Rule
The ______ _____ states that atoms bond in such a way as to have eight electrons in their valence energy level.
The Octet Rule states that atoms bond in such a way as to have eight electrons in their valence energy level.
The Octet Rule states that atoms bond in such a way as to have eight electrons in their ________ _______ ______.
The Octet Rule states that atoms bond in such a way as to have eight electrons in their valence energy level.
The Octet Rule is just another way of saying that atoms tend to be stable with ____ outer energy levels.
The Octet Rule is just another way of saying that atoms tend to be stable with full outer energy levels.
The ______ ____ is just another way of saying that atoms tend to be stable with full outer energy levels.
The Octet Rule is just another way of saying that atoms tend to be stable with full outer energy levels.
You can figure out an element’s ______ or _______ by looking for the octet.
You can figure out an element’s charge or valence by looking for the octet.
You can figure out an element’s charge or valence by looking for the _____.
You can figure out an element’s charge or valence by looking for the octet.
The exceptions of the octet rule are _______, _________ & _________. They each need only two ________ in their valence energy levels because their nearest noble gas, helium, has two electrons.
The exceptions of the octet rule are hydrogen, lithium & beryllium. They each need only two electrons in their valence energy levels because their nearest noble gas, helium, has two electrons.
The exceptions of the octet rule are hydrogen, lithium & beryllium. They each need only two electrons in their valence energy levels because their nearest noble gas, _______, has two electrons.
The exceptions of the octet rule are hydrogen, lithium & beryllium. They each need only two electrons in their valence energy levels because their nearest noble gas, helium, has two electrons.
All metals tend to lose electrons to become more stable, but it is difficult for atoms to lose more than about _____ electrons. This is because every time an electron is lost, the remaining electrons are held more closely by the _______. Predicting the number of electrons transition metals will lose is difficult.
All metals tend to lose electrons to become more stable, but it is difficult for atoms to lose more than about three electrons. This is because every time an electron is lost, the remaining electrons are held more closely by the nucleus. Predicting the number of electrons transition metals will lose is difficult.
When consulting the period table for the ion charge of an element, the ______ charge is the most common.
When consulting the period table for the ion charge of an element, the first charge is the most common.
Who is responsible for naming compounds?
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
What does IUPAC stand for?
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
_____ is used for electrical messaging in our bodies. Salt conducts the electrical signals in our nerves because it forms ____.
Salt is used for electrical messaging in our bodies. Salt conducts the electrical signals in our nerves because it forms ions.
Salt belongs to a class of substances called ____ _______.
Salt belongs to a class of substances called ionic compounds.
Ionic compounds form when ________ transfer from one atom to another.
Ionic compounds form when electrons transfer form one atom to another.
The two kinds of ions group together in an organized array called ______ _______.
The two kinds of ions group together in an organized array called crystal lattice.
The most stable atoms have ____ ______ _____ ______.
The most stable atoms have full outer energy levels.
When sodium transfers an electron to ______, sodium’s energy level is now full. When _______ receives the electron, its outer energy level is also now full. This type of bonding in called _____ bonding.
When sodium transfers an electron to chlorine, sodium’s energy level is now full. When chlorine receives the electron, its out energy level is also now full. This type of bonding is called ionic bonding.
Ionic bonds form between atoms of _____ and _________.
Ionic bonds form between atoms of metals and non-metals.
Ionic compounds are all _____ at room temperature.
Ionic compounds are all solid at room temperature.
Ionic compounds tend to ______ in water, although some do so better than others.
Ionic compounds tend to dissolve in water, although some do so better than others.
Solutions of ionic compounds always _______ _________.
Solutions of ionic compounds always conduct electricity.
All names of ionic compounds have ___ parts, because all ionic compounds are made from ___ parts.
All names of ionic compounds have two parts, because all ionic compounds are made from two parts.
Every ionic compound is made up of a ____ (positive) and an ______ (negative).
Every ionic compound is made up of a cation (positive) and an anion (negative).
The naming rule of ionic compounds is;
1) Name the ____ first by using the element’s name. (Usually a metal ion).
2) Name the _____ second by using the first part of the element’s name and changing the last part to “-ide.” (The anion is usually a non-metal ion.)

Ex. Sodium+Chlorine = ________ _______.

The naming rule of ionic compounds is;
1) Name the cation first by using the element’s name. (Usually a metal ion).
2) Name the anion second by using the first part of the element’s name and changing the last part to “-ide.” (The anion is usually a non-metal ion.)

Ex. Sodium + Chlorine = Sodium Chloride.

The formula of an ionic compound contains element symbols that identify each type of ___ present. In some formulas, the symbols are followed by subscript numbers that indicate the ratio of ions in the compound.
The formula of an ionic compound contains element symbols that identify each type of ion present. In some formulas, the symbols are followed by subscript numbers that indicate the ratio of ions in the compound.
The _______ ____ is the smallest amount of a substance with the composition shown by the chemical formula. It consists of cations and anions in the smallest whole-number ratio that results in a neutral unit in the crystal lattice of a compound. If there are no subscripts, assume that the compound has ___ cation and ___ anion.
The formula unit is the smallest amount of a substance with the composition shown by the chemical formula. It consists of cations and anions in the smallest whole-number ratio that results in a neutral unit in the crystal lattice of a compound. If there are no subscripts, assume that the compound has one cation and one anion.
All ionic compounds are composed of an _____ number of positive and negative charges. Meaning the total charge of the ______ must equal the total charge of the _____.
All ionic compounds are composed of an even number of positive and negative charges. Meaning the total charge of the anions must equal the total charge of the cations.
In some compounds the cation has a charge of 1+ and the anion has a charge of 1-. Why does this happen?

Ex. Na^+ + Cl^- = NaCl.

This happens because there has been a transfer of electrons between the atoms.

Ex. Na^+ + Cl^- = NaCl.

Al^3+ + Cl ^- =AlCl^^3

What is the Al:Cl Ratio ?

Al^3+ + Cl ^- =AlCl^^3

The Al:Cl ratio is 1:3 because you need 3 atoms of Aluminum for 1 atom of Chloride.

The method of lowest common multiple is another way of determining the correct formula for an _____ _______.

1) Find the lowest common multiple of the charges for the two ions.
2) Divide by the combining capacity of one ion to get the correct subscript for that ion.
3) Repeat the process for the other ion.
This process ensures that the number of positive charges is equal to the number of negative charges, so the formula unit is electrically neutral.

The method of lowest common multiple is another way of determining the correct formula for an ionic compound.

1) Find the lowest common multiple of the charges for the two ions.
2) Divide by the combining capacity of one ion to get the correct subscript for that ion.
3) Repeat the process for the other ion.
This process ensures that the number of positive charges is equal to the number of negative charges, so the formula unit is electrically neutral.

Steps for writing formulas for Ionic Compounds.

1) Identify the ___ & their ______.
2) Determine the total ______ needed to balance.
3) Note the ratio of _____:______.
4) Use subscript to write the formula if needed.

Steps for writing formulas for Ionic Compounds.

1) Identify the ions & their charges.
2) Determine the total charges needed to balance.
3) Note the ratio of cations to anions.
4) Use subscripts to write the formula, if needed.

TRUE or FALSE.
Some metals have more than one stable ion.
TRUE.
Elements with more than one stable ion are called ___________ elements.
Elements with more than one stable ion are called multivalent elements.
Ionic compounds containing multivalent elements must have _____ ________ in their names to indicate which ion is forming that compound. They are written in brackets after the element to indicate the charge.

Ex. Chromium is multivalent, so chromium(III) sulfide indicates that Cr^3+ ion forms that compound.

Ionic compounds containing multivalent elements must have Roman numerals in their names to indicate which ion is forming that compound. They are written in brackets after the element to indicate the charge.

Ex. Chromium is multivalent, so chromium(III) sulfide indicates that Cr^3+ ion forms that compound.

Why aren’t Roman Numerals used in formulas ?
Because you can figure out the charge on the ion by looking at the formula.
You can use the ______ charge to find the _______ charge when the cation is __________.
You can use the anions charge to find the cations charge when the cation is multivalent.
The Roman numeral is needed only if the metal element is __________.
The Roman numeral is need only if the metal element is multivalent.
The ________ _____ will tell you if an element is multivalent.
The Periodic Table will tell you if an element is multivalent.
Some ions are made up of several non-metallic ______ joined together. These are called ____________ _____.
Some ions are made up of several non-metallic atoms joined together. These are called polyatomic ions.
Poly means ____.
Poly means many.
Polyatomic Ions usually move through chemical reactions _______.
Polyatomic Ions usually move through chemical reaction intact.
The correct way to show polyatomic ions is by writing the formula with its ___ ______.
The correct way to show polyatomic ions is by writting the formula with its ion charge.
What are the two most common suffixes used in naming polyatomic ions ?
“-ate” and “ite”.
____ means more oxygen atoms are part of the ion.
“-ate” means more oxygen atoms are part of the ion.
____ means less oxygen atoms are part of the ion.
“-ite” means less oxygen atoms are part of the ion.
Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions.

1) Name the _______.
2) Name the _______.
3) You do not need to change the ending of a polyatomic ion’s name.

Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions.

1) Name the cation.
2) Name the anion.
3) You do not need to change the ending of a polyatomic ion’s name.

Methane is the chemical name for _________ ____.
Methane is the chemical name for natural gas.
A _________ forms when two or more non-mettalic atoms bond together. It can be made up of atoms of different elements or of atoms of all the same element.
A molecule forms when two or more non-mettalic atoms bond together. It can be made up of atoms of different elements or of atoms of all the same element.
The formula unit of an ______ ________, represents a ratio of ions in a crystal lattice.
The formula unit of an ionic compound, represents a ratio of ions in a crystal lattice.
TRUE OR FALSE

A formula is an independent unit.

FALSE

A formula is not an independent unit, it is just one part of a crystal lattice.

_________ are independent units made up of fixed numbers of atoms bonded together.
Molecules are independent units made up of fixed numbers of atoms bonded together.
Molecular substances can be solid, liquid or gas at room temperature, unlike _____ _________.
Molecular substances can be solid, liquid or gas at room temperature, unlike ionic compounds.
In general are molecular substances good conductors of electricity ?
No, molecular substances tend to be poor conductors of electricity, even in solution.
In general, do molecular substances tend to dissolve in water well ?
No, many molecular substances do not dissolve in water well.
The atoms in a molecule are joined together by ________ _____.
The atoms in a molecule are joined together by covalent bonds.
How do covalent bonds form ?
Covalent bonds form when atoms share electrons.
Each pair of shared _________ forms one covalent bond.
Each pair of shared electrons forms one covalent bond.
Are atoms transferred from one atom to another in covalent bonds ?
No.
Are atoms transferred from one atom to another in ionic bonds ?
Yes.
Nitrogen is known as a _________ ______ because it forms molecules made up of only one type of atom. Its molecules are _________.
Nitrogen iss known as a molecular element because it forms molecules made up of only one type of atom. Its molecules are diatomic.
________ means that each molecule is composed of only two atoms.
Diatomic means that each molecule is composed of only two atoms.
TRUE OR FALSE

Some elements form polyatomic molecules.

TRUE

Some elements form polyatomic molecules.

Monatomic, Diatomic or Polyatomic ?

C

Monatomic
Monatomic, Diatomic or Polyatomic ?

Noble Gases

Monatomic
Monatomic, Diatomic or Polyatomic ?

All metals.

Monatomic
Monatomic, Diatomic or Polyatomic ?

H?

Diatomic
Monatomic, Diatomic or Polyatomic ?

N?

Diatomic
Monatomic, Diatomic or Polyatomic ?

O?

Diatomic
Monatomic, Diatomic or Polyatomic ?

F?

Diatomic
Monatomic, Diatomic or Polyatomic ?

Cl?

Diatomic
Monatomic, Diatomic or Polyatomic ?

Br?

Diatomic
Monatomic, Diatomic or Polyatomic ?

I?

Diatomic
Monatomic, Diatomic or Polyatomic ?

O?

Polyatomic
Monatomic, Diatomic or Polyatomic ?

P?

Polyatomic
Monatomic, Diatomic or Polyatomic ?

S?

Polyatomic
What number does this prefix stand for ?

mono

1
What number does this prefix stand for ?

di

2
What number does this prefix stand for ?

tri

3
What number does this prefix stand for ?

tetra

4
What number does this prefix stand for ?

penta

5
What number does this prefix stand for ?

hexa

6
What number does this prefix stand for ?

hepta

7
What number does this prefix stand for ?

octa

8
What number does this prefix stand for ?

ennea (nona)

9
What number does this prefix stand for ?

deca

10
A binary compound contains ___ elements.
A binary compound contains two elements.
TRUE OR FALSE

All binary compounds contain hydrogen.

FALSE

Some binary compounds contain hydrogen, and some do not.

For molecules, Greek prefixes are used to indicate how many ______ of each ________ are present in the compound.
For molecules, Greek prefixes are used to indicate how many atoms of each element are present in the compound.
Any compound that does not have a metal or an ammonium ion in its formula is ________.
Any compound that does not have a metal or an ammonium ion in its formula is molecular.
Format for naming binary molecular compounds not containing hydrogen is :

_______ + first element followed by prefix + second element ending in “-ide”.

Format for naming binary molecular compounds not containing hydrogen is :

prefix + first element followed by prefix + second element ending in “-ide”.

Format for naming binary molecular compounds not containing hydrogen is :

prefix + ______ _______ _______ ___ _______ + second element ending in “-ide”.

Format for naming binary molecular compounds not containing hydrogen is :

prefix + first element followed by prefix + second element ending in “-ide”.

Format for naming binary molecular compounds not containing hydrogen is :

prefix + first element followed by prefix + ________ ________ ________ ___ _____.

Format for naming binary molecular compounds not containing hydrogen is :

prefix + first element followed by prefix + second element ending in “-ide”.

What is the name of this Binary Molecular Compound ?

CO (g)

Carbon monoxide
What is the name of this Binary Molecular Compound ?

SO? (g)

Sulfer dioxide
What is the name of this Binary Molecular Compound ?

CS? (g)

Carbon disulfide
What is the name of this Binary Molecular Compound ?

N?O? (g)

Dinitrogen trioxide
What is the name of this Binary Molecular Compound ?

CCl?

Carbon tetrachloride
What is the name of this Binary Molecular Compound ?

P?0??

Tetraphosphorus decaoxide
What is the IUPAC name for this formula ?

H?O

Water
What is the IUPAC name for this formula ?

H?O?

Hydrogen Peroxide
What is the IUPAC name for this formula ?

NH?

Ammonia
What is the IUPAC name for this formula ?

C??H??O??

Sucrose
What is the IUPAC name for this formula ?

CH?

Methane
What is the IUPAC name for this formula ?

C?H?

Propane
What is the IUPAC name for this formula ?

CH?OH

Methanol
What is the IUPAC name for this formula ?

C?H?OH

Ethanol
What is the IUPAC name for this formula ?

H?S

Hydrogen Sulfide
TRUE OR FALSE

Many important compounds are not ionic.

TRUE

Many important compounds are not ionic.

Water, methane, wax, caffeine & glucose are all __________ ________.
Water, methane, wax, caffeine & glucose are all molecular compounds.
Ionic compounds always contain _______ ; _________.
Ionic compounds always contain cations ; anions.
You can recognize an ionic compound by inspecting its formula, and noting the presence of a ________.
You can recognize an ionic compound by inspecting its formula, and noting the presence of a cation.
Ionic compounds have ____ melting points.
Ionic compounds have high melting points.
The attractions between the cation and the anions in a solid ionic compound are so strong that the ions are held in the tight, highly organized ______ _______. A ______ amount of energy must be added in the form of _____ before the ions can begin to move past each other in the liquid state.
The attractions between the cation and the anions in a solid ionic compound are so strong that the ions are held in the tight, highly organized crystal lattice. A high amount of energy must be added in the form of heat before the ions can begin to move past each other in the liquid state.
When a crystal is hit, positive ions lines up with each other, and negative ions line up with each other causing the crystal to break into a perfectly ____ ________. Ionic compounds retain their crystal shape.
When a crystal is hit, positive ions lines up with each other, and negative ions line up with each other causing the crystal to break into a perfectly flat surface. Ionic compounds retain their crystal shape.
All ionic compounds dissolve in water to some extent because both cations and anions are strongly attracted to water molecules. This occurs because each water molecule is _______.
All ionic compounds dissolve in water to some extent because both cations and anions are strongly attracted to water molecules. This occurs because each water molecule is polar.
TRUE OR FALSE

When an ionic crystal is placed in water, some ions on the surface of the undissolved crystal are attracted into the water.

TRUE.

When an ionic crystal is placed in water, some ions on the surface of the undissolved crystal are attracted into the water.

Are solutions containing ionic compounds good conductors of electricity ?
Yes, solutions containing ionic compounds are good conductors of electricity, unlike pure water, which has almost no conductivity.
TRUE OR FALSE.

The greater the concentration of ions in solution, the less conductive the solution is.

FALSE.

The greater the concentration of ions in solution, the more conductive the solution is.

Solutions of ionic compounds are considered to be excellent ____________.
Solutions of ionic compounds are considered to be excellent electrolytes.
An electrolyte is any solution that can conduct ___________.
An electrolyte is any solution that can conduct electricity.
TRUE OR FALSE.

If a solution does not contain ions, it will not conduct.

TRUE.

If a solution does not contain ions, it will not conduct.

A substance that dissolves well is considered to be very ________.
A substance that dissolves well is considered to be very soluble.
TRUE OR FALSE.

A chemical formula would be followed by the subscript (aq) when it’s in solution.

TRUE.

A chemical formula would be followed by the subscript (aq) when it’s in solution.

Are Alkali metals are very soluble ?
Yes.
TRUE OR FALSE.

Most compounds that contain chloride ions are soluble, with a few exceptions.

TRUE.

Most compounds that contain chloride ions are soluble, with few exceptions.

TRUE OR FALSE.

Most phosphates and carbonates are very soluble.

FALSE.

Most phosphates and carbonates are only slightly soluble.

Sometimes, when ionic solutions are mixed they form a _________.
Sometimes, when ionic solutions are mixed they form a precipitate.
A precipitate is a solid with low solubility that forms a __________.
A precipitate is a solid with low solubility that forms a solution.
Precipitates may form when solutions of two different ______ compounds are mixed.
Precipitates may form when solutions of two different ionic compounds are mixed.
___________ is the process involved in forming a precipitate.
Precipitation is the process involved in forming a precipitate.
Molecular compounds are made up of _________.
Molecular compounds are made up of molecules.
TRUE OR FALSE.

Each molecule of a compound always has the same number and proportion of atoms in it.

TRUE.

Each molecule of a compound always has the same number and proportion of atoms in it.

The attraction between individual atoms in a molecule is very ______. The attraction between neighboring molecules is ______.
The attraction between individual atoms in a molecule is very strong. The attraction between neighboring molecules is weak.
Do molecular compounds have a higher melting point or a lower melting point than ionic compounds ?
The melting points of molecular compounds tend to be much lower than the melting points of ionic compounds.
TRUE OR FALSE.

In molecular compounds, only a small amount of energy is required for the molecules to begin sliding past one another.

TRUE.

In molecular compounds, only a small amount of energy is required for the molecules to begin sliding past one another.

Can crystals of molecular compounds crumble easily ?
Yes, Unlike crystals of ionic compounds, crystals of molecular compounds crumble easily. The relatively weak attractions between molecules mean that the crystals do not hole their shape.
All molecules are electrically ________, both as solids and in solutions, so they _____ conduct electricity in either state.
All molecules are electrically neutral, both as solids and in solutions, so they don’t conduct electricity in either state.
Precipitates may form when solutions of two different ______ compounds are mixed.
Precipitates may form when solutions of two different ionic compounds are mixed.
___________ is the process involved in forming a precipitate.
Precipitation is the process involved in forming a precipitate.
Molecular compounds are made up of _________.
Molecular compounds are made up of molecules.
TRUE OR FALSE.

Each molecule of a compound always has the same number and proportion of atoms in it.

TRUE.

Each molecule of a compound always has the same number and proportion of atoms in it.

The attraction between individual atoms in a molecule is very ______. The attraction between neighboring molecules is ______.
The attraction between individual atoms in a molecule is very strong. The attraction between neighboring molecules is weak.
Do molecular compounds have a higher melting point or a lower melting point than ionic compounds ?
The melting points of molecular compounds tend to be much lower than the melting points of ionic compounds.
TRUE OR FALSE.

In molecular compounds, only a small amount of energy is required for the molecules to begin sliding past one another.

TRUE.

In molecular compounds, only a small amount of energy is required for the molecules to begin sliding past one another.

Can crystals of molecular compounds crumble easily ?
Yes, Unlike crystals of ionic compounds, crystals of molecular compounds crumble easily. The relatively weak attractions between molecules mean that the crystals do not hole their shape.
All molecules are electrically ________, both as solids and in solutions, so they _____ conduct electricity in either state.
All molecules are electrically neutral, both as solids and in solutions, so they don’t conduct electricity in either state.
Is water polar ?
Yes, one of water’s most important properties is that it is polar; each water molecule has a negative end and a positive end. Water has this interesting property because of its bent shape and because of the unequal sharing of electrons in the bonds holding the hydrogen and oxygen together. This makes the oxygen end of water slightly negative and the hydrogen side slightly positive.
TRUE OR FALSE

Water would boil at a much higher temperature if it was not polar.

FALSE.

Water would boil at a much lower temperature if it was not polar, at about -80?C.

If water was not ______, oceans would be boiling year round.
If water was not polar, oceans would be boiling year round.
TRUE OR FALSE

As liquid turns to ice, the molecules spread out.

TRUE.

As liquid turns to ice, the molecules spread out.

Are there few molecules in a litre of ice or a litre of water ?
The ordering of water molecules in ice also means that there are fewer molecules in a litre of ice than in a litre of water, so that liquid water is denser than ice. This is why ice floats.
An _____ is a compound that dissolves in water to form a solution with a pH lower than 7.
An acid is a compound that dissolves in water to form a solution with a pH lower than 7.
A _____ is a compound that dissolves in water to form a solution with a pH greater than 7.
A base is a compound that dissolves in water to form a solution with a pH greater than 7.
The ___ measurement indicates how acidic or basic a substance is.
The pH measurement indicates how acidic or basic a substance is.
An organ called the _______ produces sodium hydrogencarbonate and other bases that neutralize stomach acid.
An organ called the pancreas produces sodium hydrogencarbonate and other bases that neutralize stomach acid.
TRUE OR FALSE.

When acids and bases are neutralized, they lose their characteristic properties.

TRUE.

When acids and bases are neutralized, they lose their characteristic properties.

Sodium hydrogencarbonate is an example of a _______. It is a substance that can keep the pH of a solution nearly constant despite the addition of a small amount of acid or base.
Sodium hydrogencarbonate is an example of a buffer. It is a substance that can keep the pH of a solution nearly constant despite the addition of a small amount of acid or base.
TRUE OR FALSE.

Adding a metal to a solution could help determine if the solution is acidic or basic.

TRUE.

Adding a metal to a solution could help determine if the solution is acidic or basic. Acids react with metals, although some acids, such as nitric acid, react more vigorously with metals than other acids. Most bases do not attack metals.

ACID
RED
BASE
BLUE.
DD
BB
Is this property acidic or basic ?

taste : sour

acidic
Is this property acidic or basic ?

touch : not slippery

acidic
Is this property acidic or basic ?

reaction with metals : metal corrodes H? bubbles form

acidic
Is this property acidic or basic ?

litmus indicator : red

acidic
Is this property acidic or basic ?

electrical conductivity : conductive

acidic
Is this property acidic or basic ?

taste : bitter

basic
Is this property acidic or basic ?

touch : slippery

basic
Is this property acidic or basic ?

reaction with metals : no reaction

basic
Is this property acidic or basic ?

litmus indicator : blue

basic
Is this property acidic or basic ?

electrical conductivity : conductive

basic
Is this property acidic or basic ?

pH of solution : >7

basic
Is this property acidic or basic ?

pH of solution : <7

acidic
Mixtures in which separate components are not visible are called ___________ mixtures.
Mixtures in which separate components are not visible are called homogeneous mixtures.
In fermentation by bacteria, starch and sugars present in food are converted into _____ _____.
In fermentation by bacteria, starch and sugars present in food are converted into lactic acid.
The names of acids that contain hydrogen and one other non-metallic element can be written with the prefix _______ and the suffix ___.
The names of acids that? contain hydrogen and one other non-metallic element can be written with the prefix “hydro-” and the suffix “-ic”. EX. HYDROCHLORIC ACID,
Bases are (more/less) difficult to recognize by their formulas than acids are.
Bases are more difficult to recognize by their formulas than acids are.
The presence of the hydroxide ion (OH?) with a metal ion or the ammonium ion usually indicates that a substance is _____.
The presence of the hydroxide ion (OH?) with a metal ion or the ammonium ion usually indicates that a substance is basic.
When ammonia is dissolved in water, the resulting solution is ______.
When ammonia is dissolved in water, the resulting solution is basic.
Any compound with ____ solubility and an ___ on the right side of the formula is a base.
Any compound with high solubility and an OH on the right side of the formula is a base.
When acids and bases react together, both acidic and basic properties disappear. This is the process of _____________.
When acids and bases react together, both acidic and basic properties disappear. This is the process of neutralization.
Neutralization is the reaction between an acid and a base that produces _____ & _____.
Neutralization is the reaction between an acid and a base that produces water & salt.
All substances, natural and manufactured, are _______.
All substances, neutral and manufactured, are chemicals.
___________ (____) are non-toxic, non-flammable chemicals used mostly in cooling systems.
Chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) are non-toxic, non-flammable chemicals used mostly in cooling systems.
Many people use chemical substances for recreational purposes, and some of these substances can be toxic. The two most commonly used hazardous recreation chemicals are _______ & ________.
Many people use chemical substances for recreational purposes, and some of these substances can be toxic. The two most commonly used hazardous recreation chemicals are alcohol & nicotine.
The alcohol used in beverages is ________.
The alcohol used in beverages is ethanol.
TRUE OR FALSE.

Alcohol abuse can lead to psychological dependance.

TRUE.

Alcohol abuse can lead to psychological dependance.

A heavy smoke has a __x greater chance of developing lung cancer than a non-smoker does.
A heavy smoker has a 20x greater chance of developing lung cancer than a non-smoker does.
We can manage hazardous substances through a combination of :
1) Understanding the properties of __________;
2) Using careful and clever design and process engineering;
3) Placing ________ ________ and environmental protection as the top priority; and
4) Enforcing effective regulations.
We can manage hazardous substances through a combination of :
1) Understanding the properties of materials;
2) Using careful and clever design and process engineering;
3) Placing personal safety and environmental protection as the top priority; and
4) Enforcing effective regulations.
Chemical change occurs when a substance or substances react in a ______ ______ to create a different substance or substances. The substances that react are called _________, and their reaction produces new substances called ________. The products have completely different properties from the reactants.
Chemical change occurs when a substance or substances react in a chemical reaction to create a different substance or substances. The substances that react are called reactants, and their reaction produces new substances called products. The products have completely different properties from the reactants.
Chemical changes are always accompanied by ______ _____. These _____ of _______ into or out of systems drive chemical reactions.
Chemical changes are always accompanied by energy flows. These flows of energy into or out of our systems drive chemical reactions.
TRUE OR FALSE

All chemical reactions are fast.

FALSE.

Not all chemical reactions are fast.

Metals are _____, except mercury which is liquid.
Metals are solid, except mercury which is liquid.
Metals are solid, except _______ which is liquid.
Metals are solid, except mercury which is liquid.
Most of the diatomic elements are gases: ___, ___, ___, ___, and ___. Bromine is a liquid and iodine is a solid: ___, ___.
Most of the diatomic elements are gases: H?, N?, O?, F?, and Cl?. Bromine is a liquid and iodine is a solid: Br? and I?.
What state are Sulfur, phosphorus, and carbon at room temperature ?

Sulfur, phosphorus, and carbon are solids at room temperature.

 

All ionic compounds are ____ at room temperature.
All ionic compounds are solid at room temperature.
All ionic compound that is very ______ is shown as aqueous when it is dissolved in water. An ionic compound that is slightly soluble is usually shown as a solid, even when its water.
All ionic compound that is very soluble is shown as aqueous when it is dissolved in water. An ionic compound that is slightly soluble is usually shown as a solid, even when its water.
Molecular compounds are very difficult to predict the state of. The ______ the molecules are, the more they tend to be gases. The _______ they are, the more they tend to be liquids and then solids.
Molecular compounds are very difficult to predict the state of. The smaller the molecules are, the more they tend to be gases. The larger they are, the more they tend to be liquids and then solids..
Energy flow is an essential part of any _______ ________.
Energy flow is an essential part of any chemical reaction.
____________ reactions release energy, usually in the form of heat, light, or electricity.
Exothermic reactions release energy, usually in the form of heat, light or electricity.
An important exothermic reaction is the combustion of fossil fuels: ____, ___, and ______ ___.
An important exothermic reaction is the combustion of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas.
An important __________ reaction is the combustion of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas.
An important exothermic reaction is the combustion of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas.
_______ is a chemical reaction that occurs when oxygen reacts rapidly with a substance to form a new substance and gives off energy.
Combustion is a chemical reaction that occurs when oxygen reacts rapidly with a substance to form a new substance and gives off energy. *burning*
___________ reactions absorb energy.
Endothermic reactions absorb energy.
__________ reactions may be endothermic or exothermic.
Biochemical reactions may be endothermic or exothermic.
Biochemical reactions may be ___________ or _____________.
Biochemical reactions may be endothermic or exothermic.
Biochemical reactions may be ____________ or exothermic.
Biochemical reactions may be endothermic or exothermic.
Biochemical reactions may be endothermic or ____________.
Biochemical reactions may be endothermic or exothermic.
TRUE OR FALSE.

Biochemical reactions happen at an organism’s internal temperature.

TRUE.

Biochemical reactions happen at an organism’s internal temperature.

Biochemical reactions happen at an organism’s internal temperature, and they are almost always helped by ________ (biological catalysts).
Biochemical reactions happen at an organism’s internal temperature, and they are almost always helped by enzymes (biological catalysts).
Biochemical reactions happen at an organism’s internal temperature, and they are almost always helped by enzymes (_________ _________).
Biochemical reactions happen at an organism’s internal temperature, and they are almost always helped by enzymes (biological catalysts).
________ are chemicals that speed up a reaction but are not used up by it.
Catalysts are chemicals that speed up a reaction but are not used up by it.
TRUE OR FALSE.

All of the oxygen in our atmosphere comes from photosynthesis.

FALSE.

Most of the oxygen in our atmosphere comes from photosynthesis.

What is the reverse version of photosynthesis ?
Cellular respiration is the reverse of photosynthesis. Both plants and animals use cellular respiration to release energy that is then used to drive all the chemical reactions in their tissues and organs.
In an exothermic reaction the energy appears on the ____ side of the equation.
In an exothermic reaction the energy appears on the right side of the equation.
In an _____________ reaction the energy appears on the right side of the equation.
In an exothermic reaction the energy appears on the right side of the equation.
In an endothermic reaction the energy appears on the ____ side of the equation.
In an endothermic reaction the energy appears on the left side of the equation.
In an _____________ reaction the energy appears on the left side of the equation.
In an endothermic reaction the energy appears on the left side of the equation.
All reactions involve the production of new substances with their own characteristic properties. These properties include: _____ at room temperature, _______ ____, _____ and _______.
All reactions involve the production of new substances with their own characteristic properties. These properties include: state at room temperature, melting point, colour and density.
All reactions involve the ____ of ______. This may be detected by a change in temperature during the reaction. Endothermic reactions absorb energy from the environment. Exothermic reactions release energy from the environment.
All reactions involve the flow of energy. This may be detected by a change in temperature during the reaction. Endothermic reactions absorb energy from the environment. Exothermic reactions release energy from the environment.
When new substances form in a chemical reactions, sometimes change of state can be observed, for example, formation of a ___ (bubbles) or a _____ (precipitate).
When new substances form in a chemical reactions, sometimes change of state can be observed, for example, formation of a gas (bubbles) or a solid (precipitate).
All chemical reactions are consistent with the law of _____________ ___ _____.
All chemical reactions are consistent with the law of conservation of mass.
TRUE OR FALSE

Regardless of the type of chemical reaction, the total mass of the reaction system never changes.

TRUE

Regardless of the type of chemical reaction, the total mass of the reaction system never changes.

What theory is this ?

Regardless of the type of chemical reaction, the total mass of the reaction system never changes.

The Law of Conservation of Mass.
What theory is this ?

When a system of chemicals reacts completely, the total mass of all the reactants equal the total mass of the products.

The Law of Conservation of Mass.
TRUE OR FALSE.

No exceptions to Lavoisier’s proposal about the conservation of mass during a chemical reaction are known.

TRUE.

No exceptions to Lavoisier’s proposal about the conservation of mass during a chemical reaction are known.

Who discovered the Law of Conservation of Mass ?
Antoine Lavoisier
TRUE OR FALSE.

The total number of atoms present before a reaction is equal to the total number of atoms present after a reaction.

TRUE.

The total number of atoms present before a reaction is equal to the total number of atoms present after a reaction.

A _________ ________ is a process involving chemical change. Chemist record such a process in a _______ _______ that uses chemical symbols and formulas. This equation is a shorthand way of showing what happens during a reaction.
A chemical reaction is a process involving chemical change. Chemists record such a process in a chemical equation that uses chemical symbols and formulas. This equation is a shorthand way of showing what happens during a reaction.
TRUE OR FALSE.

The first step in writing a chemical equation is to recognize that a chemical change has actually occurred.

TRUE.

The first step in writing a chemical equation is to recognize that a chemical change has actually occurred.

The presence of bubbles indicates that a ___ is being produced.
The presence of bubbles indicates that a gas is being produced.
Solid magnesium metal reacts with aqueous __________ _____ to produce aqueous magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas.
Solid magnesium metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas.
Solid __________metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas.
Solid magnesium metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas.
Solid magnesium metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous _________ ________ and hydrogen gas.
Solid magnesium metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas.
Solid magnesium metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous magnesium chloride and _________ ____.
Solid magnesium metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas.
Solid magnesium metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous __________ _______ and __________ ___.
Solid magnesium metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas.
________ means that the substance is dissolved in water.
Aqueous means that the substance is dissolved in water.
What does Aqueous mean ?
Aqueous means that the substance is dissolved in water.
TRUE OR FALSE.

In a chemical equation it matters what order the reactants are written.

FALSE.

In a chemical equation it does not matter what order the reactants are written.

A ________ _______ shows the identities of the substances involved in the reaction, and which elements are present. Does not show the correct proportions of the reactants and the products.
A skeleton equation shows the identities of the substances involved in the reaction, and which elements are present. Does not show the correct proportions of the reactants and the products.
A ________ _________ uses the chemical formulas of reactants and products in a chemical equation to represent a chemical equation.
A formula equation uses the chemical formulas of reactants and products in a chemical equation to represent a chemical equation.
TRUE OR FALSE.

An equation is properly balanced if the number of each type of atom on the reactants side of an equation is equal to the number of each type of atom on the products side.

TRUE.

An equation is properly balanced if the number of each type of atom on the reactants side of an equation is equal to the number of each type of atom on the products side.

How do you balance an equation ?
You balance an equation by making sure that the number of atoms of each element left of the arrow is equal to the number of atoms of each element right of the arrow.
Never change a subscript to balance an equation. Instead, add coefficients.
Never change a subscript to balance an equation. Instead, add coefficients.
What are the five common types of reactions ?
Formation, Decomposition, Hydrocarbon Combustion, Single Replacement & Double Replacement
In the simplest form of __________ ______, two elements combine to form a compound. This type of reaction is also known as a _________ ________.
In the simplest type of formation reaction, two elements combine to form a compound. This type of reaction is also known as a synthesis reaction.
What type of reaction is this ?

element + element ->compound.

Formation Reaction
What type of reaction is this ?

A + B -> AB

Formation Reaction
What type of reaction is this ?

Word Equation : Sulfur + Oxygen -> Sulfur Dioxide
Skeleton Equation : S? + O? -> SO?

Formation Reaction
Sulfure dioxide can combine with ______ in the air to form acid rain.
Sulfur dioxide can combine with water in the air to form acid rain.
Sulfur dioxide can combine with water in the air to form ____ ____.
Sulfur dioxide can combine with water in the air to form acid rain.
What type of reaction is this ?

Word Equation : hydrogen + nitrogen -> ammonia
Skeleton Equation : H? + N? -> NH?

Formation Reaction.
TRUE OR FALSE.

You cannot always predict the formula of molecular compounds that form because more than one combination of elements is possible.

TRUE.

You cannot always predict the formula of molecular compounds that form because more than one combination of elements is possible.

TRUE OR FALSE.

No formation reactions occur between metals and non-metals.

FALSE.

Many formation reactions occur between metals and non-metals.

What type of reaction is this ?

Word Equation : sodium + chlorine -> sodium chloride.
Skeleton Equation : Na + Cl? -> NaCl

Formation Reaction.
When one reactant is a metal and the other is a non-metal, how do you predict the product ?
When one reactant is a metal and the other is a non-metal, predict the product by writing the ionic compound they form.
Decomposition Reactions are the opposite of ________ _______.
Decompositions Reaction are the opposite of Formation Reactions.
Products can be broken down to yield the reactants again in a ____________ ______.
Products can be broken down to yield the reactants again in a decomposition reaction.
In the simplest form of __________ ______, two elements combine to form a compound. This type of reaction is also known as a _________ ________.
In the simplest type of formation reaction, two elements combine to form a compound. This type of reaction is also known as a synthesis reaction.
What type of reaction is this ?

element + element ->compound.

Formation Reaction
What type of reaction is this ?

A + B -> AB

Formation Reaction
What type of reaction is this ?

Word Equation : Sulfur + Oxygen -> Sulfur Dioxide
Skeleton Equation : S? + O? -> SO?

Formation Reaction
Sulfure dioxide can combine with ______ in the air to form acid rain.
Sulfur dioxide can combine with water in the air to form acid rain.
Sulfur dioxide can combine with water in the air to form ____ ____.
Sulfur dioxide can combine with water in the air to form acid rain.
What type of reaction is this ?

Word Equation : hydrogen + nitrogen -> ammonia
Skeleton Equation : H? + N? -> NH?

Formation Reaction.
TRUE OR FALSE.

You cannot always predict the formula of molecular compounds that form because more than one combination of elements is possible.

TRUE.

You cannot always predict the formula of molecular compounds that form because more than one combination of elements is possible.

TRUE OR FALSE.

No formation reactions occur between metals and non-metals.

FALSE.

Many formation reactions occur between metals and non-metals.

What type of reaction is this ?

Word Equation : sodium + chlorine -> sodium chloride.
Skeleton Equation : Na + Cl? -> NaCl

Formation Reaction.
When one reactant is a metal and the other is a non-metal, how do you predict the product ?
When one reactant is a metal and the other is a non-metal, predict the product by writing the ionic compound they form.
Decomposition Reactions are the opposite of ________ _______.
Decompositions Reaction are the opposite of Formation Reactions.
Products can be broken down to yield the reactants again in a ____________ ______.
Products can be broken down to yield the reactants again in a decomposition reaction.
In the simplest form of __________ ______, two elements combine to form a compound. This type of reaction is also known as a _________ ________.
In the simplest type of formation reaction, two elements combine to form a compound. This type of reaction is also known as a synthesis reaction.
What type of reaction is this ?

element + element ->compound.

Formation Reaction
What type of reaction is this ?

A + B -> AB

Formation Reaction
What type of reaction is this ?

Word Equation : Sulfur + Oxygen -> Sulfur Dioxide
Skeleton Equation : S? + O? -> SO?

Formation Reaction
Sulfure dioxide can combine with ______ in the air to form acid rain.
Sulfur dioxide can combine with water in the air to form acid rain.
Sulfur dioxide can combine with water in the air to form ____ ____.
Sulfur dioxide can combine with water in the air to form acid rain.
What type of reaction is this ?

Word Equation : hydrogen + nitrogen -> ammonia
Skeleton Equation : H? + N? -> NH?

Formation Reaction.
TRUE OR FALSE.

You cannot always predict the formula of molecular compounds that form because more than one combination of elements is possible.

TRUE.

You cannot always predict the formula of molecular compounds that form because more than one combination of elements is possible.

TRUE OR FALSE.

No formation reactions occur between metals and non-metals.

FALSE.

Many formation reactions occur between metals and non-metals.

What type of reaction is this ?

Word Equation : sodium + chlorine -> sodium chloride.
Skeleton Equation : Na + Cl? -> NaCl

Formation Reaction.
When one reactant is a metal and the other is a non-metal, how do you predict the product ?
When one reactant is a metal and the other is a non-metal, predict the product by writing the ionic compound they form.
Decomposition Reactions are the opposite of ________ _______.
Decompositions Reaction are the opposite of Formation Reactions.
Products can be broken down to yield the reactants again in a ____________ ______.
Products can be broken down to yield the reactants again in a decomposition reaction.
What type of reaction is this ?

compound -> element + element

Decomposition reaction.
What type of reaction is this ?

AB -> A + B

decomposition reaction.
What type of reaction is this ?

2 H?O -> 2H? + o?

Decomposition reaction.
__________ are substances that contain hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrocarbons are substance that contain hydrogen and carbon.
TRUE OR FALSE.

Methane is the simplest hydrocarbon.

TRUE.

Methane is the simplest hydrocarbon.

What type of reaction is this ?

C?H? + O? -> CO? + H?O

Hydrocarbon Combustion.
What type of reaction is this ?

CH? + 2O? -> CO? + 2H?O

Hydrocarbon Combustion.
What type of reaction is this ?

A + BC -> B + AC

Single Replacement Reactions.
In a ______ ___________ _______, a reactive element reacts with an ionic compound. After the reaction, the element ends up in a compound, and one of the elements in the reactant compound ends up by itself as an element.
In a single replacement reaction, a reactive element reacts with an ionic compound. After the reaction, the element ends up in a compound, and one of the element in the reactant compound ends up by itself as an element.
What kind of reactions often take place in a solution?
Single replacement reactions often take place in solution.
In one type of _________ __________ reaction, a metal atom trades places with a metal ion in a compound.
In one type of single replacement reaction, a metal atom trades places with a metal ion in a compound.

ex. magnesium + silver nitrate -> silver + magnesium nitrate.

What type of reaction is this ?

magnesium + silver nitrate -> silver + magnesium nitrate.

Single Replacement Reaction.
Any metal on its own is present as ____.
Any metal on its own is present as atoms.
Any metal element in a compound is present as an ____.
Any metal element in a compound is present as an ion.
The ______ ______ determines how the compound is written.
The ionic charge determines how the compound is written.
What type of reaction is this ?

Skeleton Equation : Mg + NO? -> Ag + Mg(NO?)?
Balanced Equation : Mg + 2 AgNO? -> 2 Ag + Mg(NO?)?

Single Replacement Equation.
What type of reaction is this ?

D + BC -> C + BD

Single Replacement Equation.
What type of reaction is this ?

Balanced Equation : Cl? + 2AgBr -> Br? + 2AgCl

Single Replacement Equation.
_______ __________ reactions commonly occur between two ionic compounds.
Double Replacement reactions commonly occur between two ionic compounds.
Ionic compounds are always _____ at room temperature.
Ionic compounds are always solid at room temperature.
______ ________ reactions commonly occur between two ionic compounds. Ionic compounds are always solid at room temperature, so these reaction happen in a ______ (dissolved in liquid), where the ions have an opprotunity to mix. This type of reaction often results in the formation of at least one __________.
Double Replacement reactions commonly occur between two ionic compounds. Ionic compounds are always solids at room temperature, so these reactions happen in solution (dissolved in liquid), where the ions have the opportunity to mix. This type of reaction often results in the formation of at least one precipitate.
What type of reaction is this ?

AB + CD -> AD + CB

Double replacement reaction.
The ____ in the first compound join with
the ____ from the second compound. This is called a double replacement reaction because two new ______ compounds are formed.
The ions in the first compound join with the ions from the second compound. This is called a double replacement reaction because two new ionic compounds are formed.
In AB + CD -> AD + CB

A & C are both positive ions. They will never pair up together because they repel each other.
A & C will always appear first in formulas because positive ions are always written first.
B & D are negative ions, so they will combine with any positive ions. They are always written second in formulas.

In AB + CD -> AD + CB

A & C are both positive ions. They will never pair up together because they repel each other.
A & C will always appear first in formulas because positive ions are always written first.
B & D are negative ions, so they will combine with any positive ions. They are always written second in formulas.

Is it possible for a reaction to not fit into the five categories of chemical reactions ?
Yes, there are many kinds of reactions that do not fit into the five categories that you have just learned. There are even variations of these five types for which the products are difficult to predict.
The quantity that chemists use to measure the elements and compounds is called the ____.
The quantity that chemists use to measure the elements and compounds is called the mole.
The number of particles in 1 mol is called ________ _______.
The number of particles in 1 mol is called Avogadro’s number (N?).
What is Avogadro’s number ?
Approx 6.02 X 10??.

OR

602 000 000 000 000 000 000 000.

What kind of particles can the mole be used to measure ?
The mole can be used to measure any kind of particles, atoms, ions, molecules, and formula units.
Avogadro’s number was named in honor of _______ ______, an _____ ______ (___-___).
Avogadro’s number was named in honor of Amedeo Avogadro, an Italian scientist (1776-1856).
The mass of one mole of a substance is called its _____ ____.
The mass of one mole of a substance is called its molar mass.
The ______ _____ ____ of an element is the average mass in grams of one mole of atoms of that element.
The atomic molar mass of an element is the average mass in grams of one mole of atoms of that element.

m = n x M what do n & M equal ?

 

m is the quantity of matter (mass) in grams

 

m = n x M

m is the quantity of matter (mass) in grams,

n is the quantity of matter in moles

M is the molar mass.

The ____________ method is a simple technique for converting between the number of moles of a substance and its mass. This method is based on the idea that different units can represent the same quantity of matter.
The factor-label method is a simple technique form converting between the number of moles of a substance and its mass. This method is based on the idea that different units can represent the same quantity of matter.