Chemistry: Chapter 10

Rutherford’s Model
A model that shows that the nucleus of the atom is composed of protons and neutrons.
Electromagnetic Radiation
When energy is being transmitted from one place to another light.
Described by wavelength, frequency and speed.
Distance between 2 consecutive wave peaks.
How many wave peaks pass a point per given time period.
How fast a peak travels through water.
Tiny packets of energy that can be used to describe a beam of light.
Excited State
When there is excess energy.
Ground State
Lowest energy state of an atom.
Excited H atoms
They always emit photons with the same colors.
The energy levels of Hydrogen atoms
Quantized which means certain values are allowed.
Bohr Model
Electrons move in circular orbits around the nucleus. This model turned out to be wrong.
Wave mechanical Model
Electron states are described as orbitals and there is no information about when the electron occupies and how in this model.
Principal Energy Levels
Hydrogen has discrete energy levels which is divided into sub levels.
Pauli Exclusive Principle
An atomic orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons and must have opposite spins.
Core Electrons
The inner electrons.
They are lustrous and change shape without breaking and they are good conductors of heat and electricity. They lost electrons for positive ions.
They don’t usually have physical properties and they gain electrons for negative ions.
Elements that have both metal and nonmetal characteristics.
Ionization Energy
Energy that is required to remove an electron from an atom in gas phase.