Chemistry Chapter 15

Soap: ______ molecules have uneven electron distribution.
polar
Soap: _______ molecules have an even electron distribution.
non polar
Polar and non polar soap molecules do not _________.
interact
Soap molecules are relatively lengthy and have both an ________ end and a _______end.
ionic (polar); non polar
What term is named because it acts at surfaces?
surfactants
What is a mixture of one substance dispersed in a finely divided state throughout another?
colloidal suspension of micelles
Hydrophobic _____ maximize interaction with each other.
tails
Hydrophilic _______ maximize interaction with the water which, like them, is polar.
heads
________ in “dirty water contain clumps of greasy (nonpolar) material.
micelles
Colloidal suspensions are a type of ___________.
emulsion
Soap functions in colloidal suspensions as an __________ or ____________ _______.
emulsifier; emulsifying agent
What will make a solution cloudy because they scatter light?
particles in a colloidal suspension
What does a curd do to clean surfaces?
it coats it.
In the 1950s chemists solved the curd problem with synthetic ____ detergents?
ABS
What kind of detergents do not biodegrade?
ABS detergents
What kind of detergents do biodegrade?
LAS detergents
What kind of substances do LAS detergents biodegrade into?
CO2, H2O, (SO4)2-
What are the three types of detergents?
anionic, cationic, nonionic
This kind of detergent is where the polar part of the molecule is a negative ion.
Anionic
This kind of detergent is where the polar part of the molecule is a positive ion.
cationic
This kind of detergent maintains polarity with OH or similar groups.
nonionic
The primary function of this is to soften water?
builder
the best ______ is sodium tripolyphosphate, but it leads to eutrophication
builder
Examples of replacement builders:
sodium carbonate and zeolites
What controls consistency and density of packages products?
fillers
Enzymes and bleaching agents do what?
help degrade stains
Which laundry cleaning formulations absorb UV and emit visible light in the blue?
brighteners
What are two corrosive cleaners?
drain cleaners, toilet bowl cleaners
Hair can be curled (or uncurled) with changes in
water level, pH, chemical exposure
Lightening hair requires the __________ of melanin and phaeomelanin
removal
darkening hair means _______a dye to the hair surface
applying
What is a lotion with UV absorbing ingredients?
sunscreen
Perfumes are design to be experienced in three stages. what are they?
top note, middle note, end note
When monomers compose chain-like structures they make
polymers
What is the simplest and most common plastic?
polyethylene
The repeating _____ units can number in the thousands for the polymer molecule
CH2
What are the two tupes of Polyethylene chains?
LDPE HDPE
What is composed of more than one TYPE of monomer?
copolymer
What is it called when copolymers form, a small molecule, usually water, is expelled.
condensation
what is polyethylene terephthalate?
PET is a polyester (repeating ester groups, -R-COO-R-)
Lexan is a ___________. it is tough enough to be a bullet-proof window.
poly carbonate.
What type of rubber stretches easily and returns to its original shape?
elastomer
What does vulcanization do to rubber?
It makes it harder and more elastic.
Who was vulcanization invented by?
Charles Goodyear 1839
What type of rubber replaced natural rubber in automobile tires?
SBR
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