Chemistry Comp

Atom
The smallest particle of life. Something cannot be broken down anymore from this point.
Element
One specific type of atom. Listed on periodic table.
Mixture
When two or more different atoms are combined but can still be separated.
Compound
When two or more different atoms are combined but can only be broken down with chemical reactions.
Ionic Compound
When atoms are held together by lost or gained electrons.
Covalent Compound
When atoms are held together by shared electrons.
Homogeneous Mixture
When the percent composition of each object in the mixture is the same.
Heterogeneous Mixture
When the percent composition of each object in the mixture is different.
Proton
Plus one charge. Subatomic particle. Located in the nucleus. Relative mass of one.
Neutron
No charge. Subatomic particle. Located in the nucleus. Relative mass of one. Can be lost or gained to form isotopes.
Electron
Minus one charge. Subatomic particle. Located in the electron cloud. Relative mass of zero. Can be gained or lost to form ions. Discovered in Milikan’s Oil Drop experiment.
Chemical Change
When the chemical composition of an object is changes through a chemical reaction. (Ex: burning a log)
Chemical Property
Having to do with the chemical composition of objects.
Physical Change
When the chemical composition of an object remains the same but the object may look different. (Ex: shredding paper)
Physical Property
Having to do with the appearance of objects.
Volume
How much space something has inside.
Mass
How much matter an object has.
Isotopes
When the number of neutrons has changed. results in a different mass number.
Ions
When electrons are gained or lost. Either anion or cation. Have charge.
Mole
Unit for amount of substance. Count of the total number of particles in an atom.
Cation
When electrons are lost. Positive.
Anion
When electrons are gained. Negative.
Robert Milikan
Conducted Oil Drop experiment. Found the size of the electron’s mass and charge.
J.J. Thomson
Conducted Cathode Ray Tube experiment. Plum Pudding model. Found that subatomic particles exist and mass to charge ratio of electrons.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Created earliest periodic table. Ordered elements by atomic mass.
John Dalton
Inspired by Democritus. Came up with atomic theory similar to today’s.
Aristotle
Well known Greek philosopher of the time. Believed the earth was composed of four elements: Earth, Fire, Water, Wind. He disagreed with Democritus. Everyone agreed with him.
Democritus
Greek philosopher who first came up with the concept of an atom. No one believed him.
Solid
Organized particles, definite shape and volume.
Liquid
Unorganized particles, indefinite shape but definite volume.
Gas
Unorganized particles, indefinite shape and volume.
Plasma
Very fast and random particles, so much energy that electrons are liberated.
Avagadro’s Number
6.022×1022
AMU
Atomic Mass Unit
When balancing, add…
Coeffecients
When balancing, DON’T TOUCH…
Subsripts
Conservation of Mass
Mass can’t be created or destoyed.
Why are equations balanced?
To find an accurate and pricise measurement, along with correct atom counts.
Reactants
Left side
Products
Right Side
Arrow
Act as an equal sign in chemical reactions.
Density
D=M/V
Endothermic Reaction
When heat is released internally in a reaction.
Exothermic Reaction
When heat is released externally in a reaction.
Luminous Intensity
Candelas
Electric Current
Amperes
Mass
Kilograms
Liquid
Liters
Time
Seconds
Temperature
Kelvins
Amount of Substance
Moles
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
One cannot know the speed and location of an electron at the same time.
Valence Level
Highest energy level of atoms. This is where electrons are gained or lost.
Monoatomic Ion
An ion with only one element.
Polyatomic Ion
An ion with two or more elements.
Plum Pudding Model
J.J. Thompson’s model of the atom. The electrons represent the plum pieces. Looks like a chocolate chip cookie if you don’t know what plum pudding is.
Quantum Model
The most recent and current model of the atom.
Solar System Model
Bohr’s model of the atom. Only valid with Hydrogen.
Electron Spin
When an electron spins in the opposite direction than that of the electron which it shares the orbital with.
Octet
Meaning eight electrons. When an atom has all orbitals filled completely.
MINOH
The recommended order of balancing equations. Metals, Polyatomic ions, Non-metals, Oxygen, Hydrogen
Noble Gas Exception
Noble gases are extremely stable and do not react.
Noble Gas Notation
When you only list the electron configuration of an element after its preceding Noble Gas.
Bunsen Burner
Used for a flame in labs.
Parts of a Bunsen Burner
Barrel, Air ports, Gas inlet, Base, Needle Valve
Matter
Anything which takes up space.
Recommended flame to use in labs
Noisy, blue, stable, cone-shaped flame.
Ernest Rutherford
Conducted Gold Foil experiment. Found the nucleus and that atoms are mostly empty space.
Lewis Dot Symbols
When you write the element symbol and draw dots around it symbolizing how many valence electrons it shares.
Atomic Radius
How close the electrons are pulled to the nucleus.
Oil Drop Experiment
Oil was dropped and then charged in the middle of its fall. Found the size of the mass and charge of the electron. Done by Millikan.
Cathode Ray Tube Experiment
Electrons were passed through a tube and then placed against a negative charge. Found out about subatomic particles and mass to charge ratio of electrons. Done by Thompson.
Gold Foil Experiment
Radioactive alfa-particles were shot into a piece of gold. Found that atoms were mostly empty space and that nuclei exist. Done by Rutherford.
Chemistry
The study of matter and the changes it undergoes.
Freezing
Liquid to solid.
Melting
Solid to liquid.
Evaporation
Liquid to gas.
Sublimation
Solid to gas.
Deposition
Gas to solid.
Condensation
Gas to liquid
Ionization
Gas to plasma.
Deionization
Plasma to gas.
Orbit
The path electrons travel.
Orbital
A mathematical representation of the space electrons take up.
Electronegativity
An electron’s ability to attract other electrons.
Molar Mass
Mass per mole.
Percent Composition
Finding out the percentages that each compound has of each element.
Ionization Energy
The energy required to form ions.
Isoelectronic
2 species with the same electron configuration.
Molecular Formula
The number of atoms of each element.
Empirical Formula
Ratio of the atoms of each element.
Electron Configuration
A method of showing how many electrons an element has by means of orbitals.
S
2
P
6
D
10
F
14
Lewis Structure
A drawing which shows the sharing of electrons between elements in a covalent compound.
Mole
The number of atoms of each element present in a molecule.
Boyle’s Law
k=PV
Charles’ Law
k=v/t
Gay-Lussac Law
k=p/t
Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT
Combined Gas Law
PV=kT
R
.082 L*atm/mol*k
Percent Yield
The percent of the calculated yield versus the actually obtained amount.
Limiting Reactant
The reactant that determines how much of a product can be formed.
Acid
A substance that has to do with hydrogen ions.
Base
A substance that has to do with hydroxide ions.
pH
Power of Hydrogen or the strength of an acid or base.
Salt
A neutral precipitate formed.
Neutralization Reaction
A reaction in which an acid and a base cancel each other out.
Redox Reaction
A reaction in which electrons are transferred among elements.
Precipitate Reaction
A reaction in which a solid precipitate is formed.
Precipitate
An insoluble solid at the bottom of water.
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