Chemistry FC

 

 

 List the particles of an atom and they’re charge and where they can be found in an atom.

;

Proton: 1 positive charge; in nucleus

Neutron; no charge; in nucleus

Electron: 1 negative charge; circling around nucleus

;

;

;

Atom

;

;

The smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance.

;

;

;

Electron

;

;

Negatively charged particles found in all atoms; electrons are involved in the formation of chemical bonds.

;

;

;

Theory

;

;

An full explanation for a broad range of hypotheses and obsevations that have been supported by testing.

;

;

;

Model

;

;

;

A representation of an object or system.

;

;

;

Nucleus

;

;

The tiny, extremely dense, positively charged region in the center of an atom; made up of protons and neutrons.

;

;

;

Electron Clouds

;

;

The regions inside an atom where electrons are likely to be found.

;

;

;

Protons

;

;

The positively charged particles of the nucleus; the number of protons determines the identity of an element.

;

;The number of protons in the nucleus is called the _______________,

and it is always a whole number

;

;

;

Atomic Number

;

;

Atomic Mass Unit

(amu)

;

;

The SI unit used to express the masses of particles in an atom.

;

;

;

Isotopes

;

;

Atoms that have the same number of protons but have different numbers of neutrons.

;

;

The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom and the average mass of the atom is called the ___________.

;

;

;

Atomic Mass or Atomic Weight

;

;

;

The rounded atomic mass is the ____________.

;

;

;

Mass Number

;

;

Ion

;

An element where the number of protons is not equal to the amount of electrons which gives the element a charge (+ or -) instead of being neutral.

;

;

What is the charge of an atom that has 5 protons and 10 electrons?;

;

;

-5

;

;

What is the charge of an atom that has 17 electrons and 28 protons?

;

;

+11

;

;

Draw an example of Shorthand Notation.

;

;

(Check notes for this one)

;

;

What are #1, #2, and #3 supposed to be? (for shorthand notation)

;

#1

; ; ; ; ; ;;#2

#3

;

;

#1: Mass number

#2: Symbol of element

#3: Atomic number

;

;

Draw an example of Shorthand Notation for an ion with a charge of +3.;

;

;

(check notes for this)

;

;

Elements

;

Pure substances that cannot be seperated or broken down into simpler subsatances by physical or chemical means.

;

;

Pure Substance

;

;

A substance in which there is only one type of particle.

;

;

List the three main types of elements.

;

;

Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids

;

;

Metals

Shiny.

Good conductors of thermal and electric energy.

Most are malleable and ductile.

;

;

Metalloids

Have properties of both metals and nonmetals.

Semi-conductors.

Semi-ductile and semi-malleable.

;

;

Nonmetals

Dull.

Poor conductors.

;Great insulators.

Brittle and weak.

;

;

;

Mixture


Combination of two or more elements that are not chemically combined.

Can be seperated by physical means.

;

;

Compound;

;

A pure substance made up of two or more elements that are chemically combined.

Can be seperated by chemical means.

1. Mixtures can be ________ or _______.

;

2. The 3 types of mixtures are ________, ________, or ________.

1. Homogeneous; heterogeneous

;

2. Solutions; suspensions; colliods

;

;

List at least 2 ways of seperating mixtures.

;

Distillation, Magnet, or Centrifuge

;

(as long as you have 2)

;

;

Solution

;

A mixture that is homogeneous and is made up of a solute that has been dissolved in a solvent.

;

;

;

Solute

;

;

The substance that is dissolved in a solution.;

;

;

Solvent

;

;

The substance that dissolves the solute in a solution.

;

;

Suspension

;

A mixture where the particles are dispersed throughout a liquid or gas but are large enough they settle out.

-solute does not dissolve in suspensions

;

;

Colloid

;

;

A mixture where the particles are dispersed evenly throughout the substance but are too small and light to settle out.

;

;

Concentration

Measures the amount of solute in the solvent;

-unit is Molarity (M)

-another unit is grams in a specific volume

;

;

Unsaturated Solution

;

;

Solution where it can dissolve more solute.

;

;

Saturated Solution

;

;

Solution where it can’t dissolve more solute.

 

 

Solubility

 

The amount of solute needed to make a solution completely saturated.

The ability to dissolve in another substance.

 

 

List at least two ways to increase solubility.

 

 

Mixing the substance, heating the substance, or crushing the solute.

 

 

Characterisic Property

 

A property special to a substance regardless of the amount of the substance. Helps you identify the element.

 

 

Give one example of a characteristic property.

Density, boiling point, ductility, maleability, reactive with something (more in notes if there are other examples you wish to put).

 

(as long as you have one)

Which is there more of in a solution?

A. Solute

B. None, they’re equal in amount

C. Solvent

;

;

C. Solvent

Which of these can be filtered?

A. Suspension

B. Colloid

C. Solution

D.Both A and B

E. Both B and C

F. Both A and C

;

;

D. Both A and B

;

;

Volume

;

The amount of space a substance takes up.

Units: cm3;(CC) or liters (l)

;

;

Mass

;

;

The amount of matter in an object.

Units: gram (g)

;

;

Length

;

The distance between points.

Units: cm, m, in, km, ft, mm, mile, etc.

;

;

Matter

;

;

Anything that has mass and volume.

All matter is made of atoms

;

;

List the four states of matter.

;

;

Gas, Liquid, Solid, Plasma

;

;

Solid

a state of matter in which matter has a definite shape and volume. The atoms are very attracted to eachother and stay together, so the atoms do not move out of place.

Units for volume: cubic units (like cm3) or;mL and L.;

;

;

Liquid

A state of matter in which matter takes the shape of container and has a definite volume but not a definite shape. The atoms are not attracted to eachother as much as the atoms in solids but still are attracted. The atoms can move past eachother freely.

;

;

Plasma

A state of matter that does not have a definite shape or a definite volume and whose particles have broken apart. Composed of electrons and positively charged ions. Conducts electric current. Effected by electric feilds.

;

;

Gas

;

;

A state of matter in which matter changes in both shape and volume.

;

;

Pressure

;

;

The amount of force exerted on a given area.;

;

;

Boyle’s Law

 

 

A law that states that the volume of a gas increases as the pressure decreases.

 

 

Charle’s Law

;

;

A law that states that the volume of a gas increases as the temperature increases.

;

;

Change of State

;

;

The conversion of a substance from one state of matter to another.

;

;

Melting

;

;

The change of state from a solid to a liquid.

;

;

Freezing

;

;

The change of state from a liquid to a solid.

;

;

Vaporization

;

;

The change of state from a liquid to a gas.

Includes evaporization and boiling.

;

;

Condensation

;

;

The change of state from a gas to a liquid.

;

;

Sublimation;

;

;

The change of state from a solid directly into a gas.

;

;

Exothermic Changes of States

;

;The changes of states where heat is leaving the substance, which is nessesary for the change of state to occur.

;

;

Endothermic Changes of States;

;

;

The changes of states where heat is entering the substance, which is nessesary for the change of state to occur.

;

;

What are the two properties of liquids?

;

;

Surface Tension and Viscosity

;

;

Surface Tension

;

;

A force acting on liquid on surface. Cause spherical dot formation.

;

;

Viscosity

;

;

Resistance of flow.

-thicker liquids are more viscous.

;

;

Tempurature

;

The measure of how fast the molecules are moving.

-amount of energy, also caled heat.

;

;

Boiling;

;

A type of vaporization that occurs at the substance’s boiling point throughout the liquid.

 

 

Evaporization

 

A type of vaporization that occurs below the boiling point only at the surface of the liquid.

1. _________ effects boiling points.

 

2. The ________ you get the              (A.lower ;B.bigger) the boiling point gets.

 

1. Alttitude

 

2. Higher; bigger

 

 

List the exothermic changes

 

 

Freezing, Condensation

 

 

List the Endothermic changes.

 

 

Melting, Vaporization, Sublimation

What are #1, #2, #3,and #4 supposed to be for an element on the table of elements?

 

#1

 

#2

 

#3

#4

#1: Atomic Number

#2: Element’s Symbol

#3: Element’s Name

#4: Atomic Mass or Atomic weight 

 

 

Chemical Properties

 

A property of matter based on it’s ability to change into a new substance with new properties.

;

;

Physical Properties

;

A property of matter that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance.;

;

;

Density

;

;

The amount of matter in a given space; mass per unit volume

What is the equation for Density?

;

;

Density=mass;volume

;

;

Chemical Change

A change that occurs when two or more substances are changed into entirely new substances with new properties; cannot be reversed through physical means.
Theory
Explanation backed up by experiments;for a range of hypothesises and observations.
Democritis

Introduced the idea of atoms, saying they were small, hard particles and that they were idivisible. He also said that all substances were made up of atoms.;

He also said that atoms came in different shapes.

What word does the English word “atom” come from and what did that word mean?
It came from “atomos”, meaning indivisible.

What thing(s) did Democritis say that was incorrect?

A. Atoms are small, hard particles

B. Atoms come in different shapes

C. All substances are made up of atoms

D. Atoms are indivisible

E. None of the above

B. and D.

1. Who opposed (went against, hated) Democritis and his ideas?

;

2. Which of the two won people’s respect?

1. Aristotle

 

2. Aristotle

List Dalton’s Atomic Theory

1) All substances are made of atoms, and atoms are small particles that cannot be divided, created, or destroyed.

2) Atoms of the same element are exactly alike, and atoms of different elements are different.

3) Atoms join with other atoms to make new substances.

;

Democritis had his theory in _______.
440 B.C.E
Dalton had his theory in _______.
1803
JJ Thomson
Discovered negative particles which we now call electrons. Also discovered that there was positive material in an atom because something had to balance the negative particles.;
JJ Tompson conducted a ___________ experiment.
Cathode Ray Tube;
JJ Tompson made the ____________ model.
Plum Pudding
What did JJ Thomson call the negatively charged particles in an atom?
He called them corpusles.
Rutherford;
Discovered protons are densely packed in the center of an atom. He also discovered that the atom is alot of epty space with electrons on the outside of the nucleus.;

UtrEfDrHo conducted the __________ experiment.

;

;

Rutherford conducted the Gold Foil expirement
Bohr;
Said that electrons had defined paths that they traveled on. He said they would jump from path to path.

Which part of Rutherford’s discoveries was wrong?

A. None of the below

B. Protons are densly packed in the center of the atom.

C. The atom is alot of empty space with electrons on the outside of the nucleus

A. None of the below
The modern day theory was made by whom?
Schroedinger and Heisenberg
The modern day theory.
Says that electrons can be found in electron clouds
x

Hi!
I'm Larry

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out