Chemistry Final

The state of matter with both definite shape and definite volume is a
solid
A measure of the amount of space matter occupies is
volume
Democritus’ view that matter was atomic in nature was
not widely accepted until the 1800s
Which component of the atom has a positive charge
proton
From the periodic table, which of the following elements is likely to have physical and chemical properties closest to those of Chlorine
Bromine
How many electrons are there in the outer shell of Arsenic?
5
What would be the most likely formula for barium sulfide?
BaS
The alchemists were interested in turning lead into gold by a process called
transmutation
The type of bond between atoms in which electrons are lost by one atom and gained by another is called
ionic
If fluorine were to form an ion, it would most likely be
F-1
Study of separation and analysis of chemical substances both qualitative and quantitative
Analytical chemistry
Substance which is a chemical combination on an atomic level of two or more elements
Compound
General truth
law
Substance which can not be subdivided into small components by chemical means
Element
Study of living things
Biological science
Conjective statement
Hypothesis
Non-chemical combination of materials separable by physical means
Mixture
Study of non-living things
Physical science
Study of the physical changes associated with chemical reactions and the dependence of physical properties on chemical composition
Physical chemistry
Hypothesis which has been tested and appears to be true
Theory
1 m=___ cm
100 cm
4.7 L=___ mL
4700 mL
360 kg=___ g
360,000 g
1 ul=___ L
0.000001 L
2300 g=___ Mg
0.002300 Mg
2 Mg=___ kg
2000 kg

Write in scientific notation

3,000

3 x 103

Write in scientific notation

0.0007

7 x 10-4

Write in scientific notation

70,000,000

7 x 107

Write in scientific notation

0.00123

1.23 x 10-3
What is the formula for calculating density
D=m/v
It is known that Napoleon at the time of his death suffered from arsenic poisoning.; This was determined by
analysis of hair samples that still exist today
What;uses fusion to generate most of their energy
Stars and hydrogen bombs
At the instant an atomic bomb detonates the uranium or plutonium goes from
subcritical to supercritical
There is no evidence of any substantial amounts of what in our universe
Antimatter
In radioactive decay
A proton can change into a neutron and a positron, a neutron can change into a proton and an electron, a proton and an electron can combine to form a neutron, 2 protons and 2 neutrons can be kicked out of the nucleus
What technique is appropriate for dating something which contains organic molecules
Carbon-14 dating
Two types of atom bombs are
Gun type and implosion type
At the temperatures of million of degrees necessary for controlled fusion, the fuel would exist in a fourth state of matter called
Plasma
The person who showed that all uranium and thorium compounds are radioactive and then went on to isolate other radioactive elements like radium and polonium from uranium ore was
Marie Curie
Carbon-12 and carbon-14 represent a;pair of
isotopes
Magnetic confinement and inertial confinement could be used in
controlled fusion reactors
Deuterium oxide is also called
Heavy water
Graphite can be used in a nuclear reactor as the
Moderator
Some countries have built reactors which make more fuel than they consume.; Such reactors are called
Breeder reactors
In addition to her work in explaining nuclear fission, Lise Meitner was responsible for the discovery of the element
Protactinium
According to the video tape, “The Bomb’s Lethal Legacy,” residents of the Hanford area may have a higher than normal incidence of thyroid problems due to the release of radioactive
Iodine
Nuclear reactors are usually built near a river or ocean so the water can be used to
Cool the steam in the turbine back into liquid water
If 400 grams of a radioactive material decays to 25 grams in 10 days, what is its half-life
2.5 days
In the equation, E=MC2, the M stands for
Mass
In 1938, Eruci Fermi received the Nobel Prize in physics for the discovery of
Slow neutrons
According to current theory, all of the elements can be built up in stars starting from
Hydrogen
Until recently, the U.S. planned for the permanent storage of commercial high level nuclear waste
In a granite mountain in Nevada
According to the article “Buried in Ice” the members of the Franklin expedition died while suffering from what kind of poisoning
Lead
Positrons and electrons combine to form
Gamma rays
Plutonium-238 does not exist in nature but can be made in
Nuclear reactors
If there are too many neutrons for the number of protons what type of decay would improve the situation
Beta
Geologists can use potassium-argon dating to determine how long it has been since a rock last
Solidified
If a star were so dense that the electrons were forced into the nucleus, they would combine with the protons to form
Neutrons
An atom can change a proton into a neutron by
Either positron decay or electron capture
A process that has been used to separate U-235 from U-238 is
Gaseous diffusion
Uranium-235 and uranium-238 undergo a long series of decays ultimately resulting in isotopes of
Lead
Krypton has an atomic weight of 83.8.; This is not a whole number because
There is more than one isotope of Krypton found in nature
The “Manhattan Project” was the code name for the project to build the first
Atomic bomb
The elements with the most stable nuclei are the ones
Near the middle of the periodic chart like iron
The fuel used in most nuclear reactors today is
Uranium
The idea that the universe began in a huge explosion 13.7 billion years ago is called
The big;bang theory
Uranium which contains more uranium-235 than natural uranium is called
Enriched uranium
How many cities have been destroyed by nuclear weapons in the history of the world
Two
Which type of decay does not change the number of protons or neutrons present
Gamma decay
In present nuclear power plants, electricity is generated by a turbine which is turned by
Steam
The control rods in nuclear reactors are often made of
Cadmium
Radioactive isotopes of iodine are dangerous byproducts of fission which are very hazardous to health because the body will store them in the
Thyroid gland

How many neutrons are there in 1H3

;

Two
Radioactivity can be used to
Produce mutations in plants and animals, preserve food, operate small power supplies, treat cancer
Plutonium-239 can be produced by neutron bombardment of uranium-238.; Uranium-238 is therefore called a
Fertile fuel
A positively charged electron is referred to as a
Positron
A star in which gravity is so strong that matter is totally crushed out of existance is called a
Black hole
Which of the following is not true of present American electricity producing nuclear reactors
In a severe accident, they might explode with the force of an atom bomb.
In nuclear reactors a material is often present to slow down neutrons in order to promote more fissions.; Such a material is called a
Moderator
The component of the atmosphere necessary for photosynthesis is
Carbon dioxide
Eutrophication is a process by which
A lake is converted to a swamp
Water-born diseases like cholera and typhoid have been largely eliminated in the U.S. because of
Chlorination
Due to the presence of sulfur oxides, rainfall down wind from highly industrialized areas is likely to be more
Acidic
The method of disposal of ordinary garbage which is most used in the U.S. today is
Sanitary landfill
Ultraviolet radiation from the sun is filtered out before it strikes the earth by
Ozone
Scientists have been concerned that continued release of chlorofluorocarbons to the atmosphere would
Deplete the ozone layer
The air pollutant that sucessfully competes with oxygen for bonding sites on the hemoglobin molecule in the blood is
Carbon monoxide
High temperature combustion always produces
Nitrogen oxides
Which of the following air pollutants does not contribute to acid rain
Carbon monoxide
Secondary pollutants produced in the atmosphere by the reaction of hydrocarbons, oxygen and nitrogen dioxide are
Peroxyacyl nitrates
Give three examples of major pollutants produced by the automobile internal combustion engine
Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide
Automobiles produced in the U.S. since 1975 produce less carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emmisions that older cars due primarily to
Catalytic converters
The most efficient and most expensive method for removal of particulate pollution from smoke stacks is
Electrostatic precipitators
If water contains lots of dissolved oxygen, organic materials will undergo
aerobic decay
Mercury is a cummulative poison which means it
is difficult for the body to eliminate
Runoff from strip mined land is often
Acidic
Thermal pollution is waste
Heat
Torrey Canyon, Amoco Cadiz, and Exxon Valdez were the names of
Oil tankers
Alum and lime are used to
Precipitate suspended particles from water
What are three effective ways of killing bacteria in water
Ultraviolet light, ozone, chlorine
Secondary sewage treatment is
Biological
The process in which air or oxygen is pumped into sewage to aid in decay is called
Activated sludge
The worst method of disposal for ordinary household garbage is
Open dump
Soap can be made from
Animal fat and lye
When mixed with water micelles are produced by
Soaps, ABS detergents, LAS detergents
Limestone dissolves in
Acids
Calcium, magnesium and iron are examples of
Hard ions
Which of the following could be added to hard water to precipitate some of the hard ions
Washing soda
One advantage of linear alkyl sulfonate (LAS) detergents over alkylbenzene sulfonate (ABS) detergents is that they
Are more easily biodegraded
Phosphates are often added to detergents as
Builders
Enzyme additives seem to be effective in removing
Protein stains
The second most abundant gas in the earth’s atmosphere is
Oxygen
If a compound is labeled mutagenic, that means it can cause
Mutations
Saponification is a process used in
Manufacturing soap
Permanent hardness can be removed by
Precipitation with chemicals like washing soda, ion exchange
In 1980 Congress passed legislation designed to clean up abandoned or orphan toxic waste site. This legislation is commonly known as the
Superfund
Hardness in water is undesirable because it
Precipitates soap
Bacteria in the root nodules of legumes like peas and beans can fix (convert to a useable form)
Nitrogen
Name three parts of the carbon cycle
Photosynthesis, respiration, decay
A 5% solution of sodium hypochlorite can be used in cleaning clothes because it is a
Bleach
The agency of the federal government with the primary responsibility for regulating polluters is the
Environmental Protection Agency
The videotape “The River Must Live” dealt with
Natural biological processes in streams and sewage treatment
A toxic chemical which has been more of a problem in Missouri than any other state is
Dioxin
The main reason carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have been going up year after year is
The burning of fossil fuels like natural gas, petroleum and coal
The town of Donora, Pennsylvania is somewhat famous because in 1948 it was the site of the worst ____ pollution incident in the U.S.
Air
During WWII a group of compounds derived from sulfanilamide were used to fight infections.  These were called
Sulfa drugs
Chemical substances produced by microorganisms which kill bacteria or inhibit their growth are called
Antibiotics
Nerve impulses are transmitted to the brain as
A combination of electrical and chemical signals
A class of drugs used in pep pills and diet pills are the
Amphetamines
The ultimate effect of over-stimulation of the central nervous system is
Convulsions
Opium is a mixture which contains several
Narcotics
Enkephalins and endorphins are natural brain neurotransmitters which are mimicked by
Narcotics
Name four hallucinogenic drugs
LSD, peyote, STP, PCP
Heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and arsenic are toxic because they
Tie up enzyme proteins in the body
Nerve gases stockpiled by the U.S. and other countries are chemically related to
Organophosphates like Parathion
The videotape “The Insect Alternative” suggests insecticides should be used
Only as part of a program of integrated pest management
The videotape “The Frozen Addict” dealt with young people who had
Parkinson’s disease
The videotape “Witch’s Curse” suggests children in Salem accused various adults of witchcraft because
They had been poisoned and were hallucinating
Drug that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter
Agonist
A heavy user of a drug requires more to produce a certain effect that a novice
Tolerance
Mixture of two drugs which has a greater effect than the sum of their individual effects
Synergism
Drug that blocks the action of a neurotransmitter
Antagonist
Heavy use of one drug reduces the effectiveness of similar drugs
Cross-tolerance
Organic chemistry was originally defined as the chemistry of
Living things
Give an isomer of CH3-CH2-CO2H
CH3-CH2-CH2OH
Hydrocarbons are compounds containing only
Carbon and hydrogen
There is some concern about releasing aromatic hydrocarbons to the environment because some have been found to be
Carcinogenic
Coal, natural gas and petroleum are all
Fossil fuels
Propane and butane are major components of
Liquified petroleum gas
The octane rating of a given gasoline can be increased by adding
Tetraethyl lead
The main element in coal is
Carbon
Peat is partially decayed organic matter which if further compressed will eventually produce
Coal
Natural gas or gasoline could be made from coal.; It isn’t done in the U.S. today because
 The economics are not favorable
Cotton is a possible starting material for which kind of polymer
Cellulosic
Polymers made by opening the double bond in a monomer are
Addition polymers
Liquids of low viscosity which are added to polymers to make them more flexible are
Plasticizers
In addition to nitrogen, plants need substantial amounts of
Potassium and phosphorus
Nicotine, in addition to its use as a recreational drug, has been used as an
Insecticide
A lake is sprayed repeatedly with a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide.  If this is a cumulative poison, the species likely to have the highest internal levels of the pesticide is
The birds that eat fish that eat crustaceans that eat algae
DDT has been useful in fighting diseases such as malaria because
It kills insects like mosquitos which transmit malaria
Natural sex attractants are called
Pheromones
2, 4-D and 2, 4, 5-T are
Herbicides
The rodenticide warfarin kills rats by
Interfering with the clotting mechanism of their blood
Drugs are detoxified in the body by the
Liver
A non-aspirin OTC pain reliever could mean
Acetaminophen
Used to separate low boiling fractions of petroleum like gasoline from higher boiling ones like kerosene
Crude distillation
Changing linear hydrocarbons into branched ones
Catalytic reforming
Breaking large hydrocarbons into smaller ones
Cracking
Used to separate very high boiling components of petroleum
Vacuum distillation
Cross-linking with sulfur
Vulcanization
Hooking small molecules together to make bigger ones
Polymerization
An essential amino acid is one which
Cannot be manufactured within the body
Enzymes necessary for the digestion of the food we eat are found in the
Saliva, small intestine, stomach
An example of an over-reaction of the body’s immune system is
Allergies
The type of RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the ribosomes is
Transfer RNA
In the genetics code the number of bases that code for one amino acid is
Three
Pure sodium bicarbonate is called
Baking soda
High doses of this vitamin cause rats to live longer
Vitamin E
This vitamin is necessary for production of clotting proteins
Vitamin K
Deposited in bones and teeth
Calcium
This vitamin is manufactured in the skin when exposed to sunlight
Vitamin D
This vitamin is necessary to prevent scurvy
Vitamin C
Helps to harden tooth enamel
Fluorine
This vitamin is a complex of several compounds used as coenzymes
Vitamin B
Absence of this vitamin causes night blindness
Vitamin A
Necessary for the production of thyroid hormones
Iodine
Contained in hemoglobin in red blood cells
Iron
Polypeptides are short
Proteins
The chemical buildup in the cells of the chemicals our body needs is called
Anabolism
A group of compounds which serve as very powerful hormones are the
Prostaglandins
A complex of lipid and protein in the blood is called a
Lipoprotein
Glucose can be stored in the muscles as
Glycogen
The type of RNA that contains the code for particular proteins is called
Messenger RNA
How many bases are there in the DNA alphabet
Four
The transfer of genes from one organism to another is called
Recombinant DNA
Myelin is found around
The spinal cord and nerves
Traditional birth control pills prevent pregnancy by
Preventing ovulation
Chemicals produced by lymphocytes in response to antigen markers on foreign cells
Antibodies
Process by which a protein is built from a code in the RNA
Translation
Catalysts for biochemical reactions
Enzymes
The process by which one RNA molecule is built from a DNA molecule
Transcription
The process by which one DNA molecule duplicates itself
Replication
Proteins are sometimes cross-linked with
Sulfur
Collagen is a
Structural protein
The function of insulin is to control the level of
Blood sugar
Hemoglobin is an example of a
Transport protein
Glucose is produced in plants by a process called
Photosynthesis
Protein synthesis takes place
At the ribosomes
Phospholipids are used by the body to make
Cell membranes
Anabolic steroids are most closely related to
Testosterone
Sugars and polymers of sugars
Carbohydrates
Polymers composed of a sugar-phosphate backbone with attached organic bases
Nucleic acids
Water insuluble compounds such as fats, cholesteral, etc.
Lipids
Chemical messengers from one organ to another
Hormones
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