Chemistry III

Dynamic equilibrium
rates of
the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal
larger the k value the ________ product at equilibrium
more product
concentration of reactions at equilibrium
not equal
Keq >> 1
equilibrium favors products
Keq << 1
equilibrium favors reactants
K backward =
1/ K forward
Q > K
fastest in the reverse direction,the [products] will decrease and [reactants] will increase
Q < K
fastest in forward direction, the [products] will increase and [reactants] will decrease
Q = K
reaction is at equilibrium
Properties of acids
sour
reacts with active metals
corrosive
litmus blue turns to red
reacts with carbonates
Binary acids
acid hydrogens attached
to a nonmetal atom
Oxy acids
acid hydrogens attached to
an oxygen atom
Carboxylic acids
have COOH group
Properties of Bases
bitter
red litmus turns blue
known as alkalis
Solutions feel slippery
Indicators
change color depending on acidity or basicity,litmus, Phenolphthalein
Arrhenius Base
dissociate in water to produce OH? ions
and cations
Arrhenius Acid
ionize in water to produce H+ ions and
anions
Arrhenius Acid–Base Reactions
acid + base > salt + water
Bronsted-Lowry Acid
acid is an H donor
Bronsted-Lowry Base
base is an H acceptor
Amphoteric
can act as an acid or a base (water)
Conjugate acid has one ________ proton
has one more proton (hydrogen)
strong acid or base is a ________ electrolyte
strong, and vise versa
larger Ka = ________ acid
stronger
pH formula
pH = -log[H3O+], to get [H3O+] 10^-(pH)
autoionization
atoms and molecules spontaneously emit a valence electrons
Dissociation Constant of Water
Ion Product of Water: [H3O+] x [OH–] = Kw = 1.00 x 10^?14 @ 25 °C
pOH formula
pOH = ?log[OH?], [OH?] = 10^?pOH
pH+ pOH =
14.00
strength of an acid or
base formula
pKa = -log(Ka), Ka = 10^-pKa
pKb = -log(Kb), Kb = 10^-pKb
stronger the acid the _________ pKa
smaller
larger Ka = ________ pKa
smaller
polyprotic acids
more than one ionizable H-, stronger than monoprotic acids
Percent Ionization =
(molarity of ionized acid / initial molarity) * 100
Salts
water-soluble
can be acidic or basic
anion
conjugate
base of an acid
stronger the acid, the _________ the conjugate base
weaker the
conjugate base
higher electronegativity = _________ acidity
higher acidity, increases right and down periodic table
Lewis Acid Base theory
focuses on transferring
an electron pair
Lewis Base
electron donor
electron rich, therefore nucleophile
Lewis Acid
electron acceptor
electron deficient, therefore electrophile
acid rain
pH less than 5.6, corrodes carbonate (bridges, cement, marble, limestone)
danger of antifreeze
contains ethylene glycol which is turned into glycolic acid by liver, lowers blood pH causes acidosis
buffers
resist changes in pH when an acid or base is added
Making an Acid Buffer
weak acid mixed with solution of soluble salt containing conjugate base anion
common ion
conjugate base of the acid
Relationship between pKa and pKb
?log(Ka) + ?log(Kb) = 14
pKa + pKb = 14
Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
pH=pKa+log(A-/HA)
buffering capacity
amount of acid or
base a buffer can neutralize
buffering range
pH range the buffer can
be effective
effectiveness of a buffer depends on
1. relative amounts of acid and base
2. absolute concentrations of acid and base
buffers will work when
0.1 < [base]:[acid] < 10
buffers most effective when there are
equal concentrations of acid and base
titration
a solution of unknown concentration
(titrant) is slowly added to a solution of known concentration
the equivalence point
inflection point of the curve
solubility product, Ksp
constant of dissociation of a
solid salt into its aqueous ions
molar solubility
number of moles of
solute that will dissolve in a liter of solution
complex ions
Ions that form by combining a cation with several anions or neutral molecules
ligands: the (H2O) in Ag(H2O)2
attached ions or molecules of complex ions
conjugate base has one _______ hydrogen
has one less proton (hydrogen)
Ka x Kb =
kw = 1*10^-14
What is the difference between a strong and weak acid
strong acid completely ionizes where a weak one partially ionizes
what is the autoionization of water?
water acts as an acid and a base with itself
Do both protons ionize instantaneously from a diprotic acid such as H2CO3
No polyprotic acids ionize in successive steps, the lst proton easily separates from the nuetral atom while the next protons have difficulty in separating from the anions
Describe the relationship between molecular structure and acid strength
The stronger the bonds the weaker the acid, the greater the electronegativity & polarity the stronger the acid
compound that is in antifreeze and is toxic to pets
ethylene glycol
Sketch the titration curve for a strong acid titrated with a strong bas
[image]
Identify the compound that is in stalactites and stalagmites
Calcium carbonate
x

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