Chemistry Internship Study Questions Section 1

Match the term with its definition:
Accuracy
Agreement of results with the true value
Match the term with its definition:
Precision
Reproducibility
Match the term with its definition:
Mean
The average value in a set
Match the term with its definition:
Mode
Most common value in a set
Match the term with its definition:
2SD
95% Confidence Limits
Match the term with its definition:
CV
(SD x 100)/Mean
Match the term with its definition:
Standard
Substance whose exact concentrations are known
Match the term with its definition:
Control
Substance having a known “range” of values
The mean for a particular control is 110 mg/dL. 1 SD = 5. What are the confidence limits for this control? (2SD)
100-120
What is a delta check?
Comparison of a patient’s results with their previous test results.
What is the purpose for doing a delta check?
Helps detect sampling labeling errors, testing errors, and erroneous patient results.
What is a systematic error?
Errors in the test system that affect all samples on the run.
Give 2 examples of systemic error causes.
Incorrect calibration, bad reagents, malfunctioning dilutors or pipettes
What is a random error?
Mistakes that occur without prediction or regularity, but do NOT affect all samples on a run
How often can random errors be expected to occur?
May occur as frequently as 1:20 analysis.
Give 2 examples of random error.
Temperature fluctuations, mislabeled specimens, clerical errors, carelessness
What is a “trend”?
Gradual increased or decreased movement of control values in 6 or more consecutive runs.
List 2 common causes of a “trend”.
Deterioration of reagents, standards, or instrument performance.
What is a “shift”?
When control results fall on either side of the mean on 6 or more consecutive control runs.
List 2 common causes of a “shift”.
Introduction of something new into the procedure such as new lot of reagents or a sudden malfunction of the instrument.
What is the purpose of Westgard Rules?
A combination of decision criteria, or control rules, to decide whether an analytical run is in-control or out-of-control
In regards to Westgard Rules, what does each of the following mean:

1-2S

1 Control is >2 SD (but less than 3 SD); “warning” rule
In regards to Westgard Rules, what does each of the following mean:

1-3S

1 control is >3 SD; Due to random or systemic error
In regards to Westgard Rules, what does each of the following mean:

2-2S

2 or more controls are >2 SD on the same day of testing or one control is >2 SD on 2 consecutive runs. Suggests Systemic Error
In regards to Westgard Rules, can patient results be reported for the following Westgard Rule Errors:

1-2S

Accept Run
In regards to Westgard Rules, can patient results be reported for the following Westgard Rule Errors:

1-3S

Reject Run
In regards to Westgard Rules, can patient results be reported for the following Westgard Rule Errors:

2-2S

Reject Run
Identify shifts, trends, and/or random errors in the following Levey-Jennings Chart below @ Day 10:
[image]
Random Error
Identify shifts, trends, and/or random errors in the following Levey-Jennings Chart below @ Day 13-21:
[image]
Shift
Identify shifts, trends, and/or random errors in the following Levey-Jennings Chart below @ Day 5-16:
[image]
Downward Trend
Identify shifts, trends, and/or random errors in the following Levey-Jennings Chart below @ Day 18-27:
[image]
Upward Trend
Identify the Westgard Rule in violation for this single control:
[image]
2-2S
Identify the Westgard Rule in violation for this single control:
[image]
1-3S
Looking at both controls each day, identify any Westgard Rule violations AND state whether the run can be accepted or must be rejected for Day 3:
Identify the Westgard Rule in violation for this single control:
[image]
1-2S
Accept
Looking at both controls each day, identify any Westgard Rule violations AND state whether the run can be accepted or must be rejected for Day 9:
Identify the Westgard Rule in violation for this single control:
[image]
1-2S
Accept
Looking at both controls each day, identify any Westgard Rule violations AND state whether the run can be accepted or must be rejected for Day 10:
Identify the Westgard Rule in violation for this single control:
[image]
2-2S
Reject
Looking at both controls each day, identify any Westgard Rule violations AND state whether the run can be accepted or must be rejected for Day 20:
Identify the Westgard Rule in violation for this single control:
[image]
1-2S
Accept
Looking at both controls each day, identify any Westgard Rule violations AND state whether the run can be accepted or must be rejected for Day 21:
Identify the Westgard Rule in violation for this single control:
[image]
2-2S
Reject
Looking at both controls each day, identify any Westgard Rule violations AND state whether the run can be accepted or must be rejected for Day 6:
Identify the Westgard Rule in violation for this single control:
[image]
1-3S
Reject
Looking at both controls each day, identify any Westgard Rule violations AND state whether the run can be accepted or must be rejected for Day 19:
Identify the Westgard Rule in violation for this single control:
[image]
1-2S
Accept
Looking at both controls each day, identify any Westgard Rule violations AND state whether the run can be accepted or must be rejected for Day 20:
Identify the Westgard Rule in violation for this single control:
[image]
2-2S
Reject
What does the MSDS stand for?
Material Safety Data Sheet
Why is it important that the lab have a file of the MSDS?
Precautions & Treatment following exposure
Label the Blue diamond in this National Fire Protection Agency Symbol:
[image]
Health
Label the Red diamond in this National Fire Protection Agency Symbol:
[image]
Flammability
Label the Yellow diamond in this National Fire Protection Agency Symbol:
[image]
Reactivity/Instability
Label the White diamond in this National Fire Protection Agency Symbol:
[image]
Special Hazards
With the National Fire Protection Agency Symbol, what does the number 0 represent?
No Hazard
With the National Fire Protection Agency Symbol, what does the number 4 represent?
High Hazard
What does the following symbol indicate:
[image]
Biohazard
What does the following symbol indicate:
[image]
Explosive
What does the following symbol indicate:
[image]
Flammable
What does the following symbol indicate:
[image]
Toxic
What does the following symbol indicate:
[image]
Corrosive
What does the following symbol indicate:
[image]
Radiation