Chemistry Internship Study Questions Section 1

Why is a serum sample preferred (over plasma) for a total protein test and electrophoresis?
Fibrinogen will cause a plasma value to be slightly higher than serum;
Fibrinogen will cause the appearance of a small peak on electrophoresis.
What is the reference range for total protein?
6.5-8.5 g/dL
What is the reference range for total albumin?
2.5-5.5 g/dL
What in vitro conditions could cause proteins to denature?
Heat, Repeated Freeze-Thaw Cycles, Prolonged UV Exposure
How will hemolysis affect a total protein result?
Falsely Elevate the total protein value
What protein is present in highest concentration in serum?
Albumin
List 4 causes of a decreased total protein.
Liver Disease, Burns, GI Malabsorption, Acute Glomerulonephritis, Starvation
State the classic method and reagent used in the quantification of:

Total Protein

Biuret using cuprous ions
State the classic method and reagent used in the quantification of:

Albumin

Dye-binding with bromcresol green, bromcresol purple, or methyl orange
List the carrier protein for the following:

Hemoglobin

Haptoglobin
List the carrier protein for the following:

Iron

Transferrin
List the carrier protein for the following:

Bilirubin

Albumin
List the carrier protein for the following:

Copper

Ceruloplasmin
List the carrier protein for the following:

Thyroid Hormone

Prealbumin
In what conditions or diseases would you expect to find a decreased Haptoglobin?
Intravascular Hemolysis, Transfusion Reactions, Hemolytic Anemia
What disease is associated with a decreased level of alpha-1-antitrypsin?
Emphysema
What conditions are associated with an elevated beta-2-microglobulin?
Multiple Myeloma & Lymphoma
What conditions or diseases are associated with an elevated plasma viscosity?
Multiple Myeloma, Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia, Hyperfibrinogenemia
What is the reporting unit for plasma viscosity?
Centipoise
What is a normal AG ratio?
1.5:1
What condition is associated with an increased AG ratio?
Immunosuppression
What conditions are associated with a decreased AG ratio?
Multiple Myeloma, Chronic Inflammation, Nephrotic Syndrome
List 2 primary factors that influence a protein’s rate of migration.
Charge, Size, Molecular Weight
At a buffer pH of 8.6, which type of charge will most proteins acquire?
Negative (=)
At a buffer pH of 8.6, to which pole will proteins migrate?
Anode (+)
Buffer flow toward the negative electrode passively carries some proteins. What is the term for this phenomenon?
(Electro) endosmosis
Label the 5 protein electrophoresis fractions, the cathode, and the anode:
1
[image]
Albumin
Label the 5 protein electrophoresis fractions, the cathode, and the anode:
2
[image]
Alpha-1
Label the 5 protein electrophoresis fractions, the cathode, and the anode:
3
[image]
Alpha-2
Label the 5 protein electrophoresis fractions, the cathode, and the anode:
4
[image]
Beta
Label the 5 protein electrophoresis fractions, the cathode, and the anode:
5
[image]
Gamma
Label the 5 protein electrophoresis fractions, the cathode, and the anode:
X
[image]
Anode +
Label the 5 protein electrophoresis fractions, the cathode, and the anode:
Z
[image]
Cathode =
How will a plasma protein electrophoresis scan differ from a serum scan?
Fibrinogen band will appear between Beta and Gamma in Plasma. It will be absent in Serum.
What primary neurologic disease is associated with an abnormal CSF electrophoresis?
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Describe the significant finding on the electrophoresis pattern when the primary neurologic disease (MS) is associated with an abnormal CSF electrophoresis.
Oligoclonal bands present in Gamma region
What is Bence Jones protein?
Free Kappa or Lambda Light Chains
In what disease do you often see Bence Jones proteins?
Multiple Myeloma
Explain the principle of capillary zone electrophoresis.
Proteins migrate through a capillary tube based on net charge. As each protein or group of proteins passes through a detector, the absorbance is measured and converted into a peak.
What is one of the major benefits of capillary zone over traditional electrophoresis?
It is Faster
Describe the characteristic protein electrophoresis pattern seen in the following:

Multiple Myeloma

M Spike
Describe the characteristic protein electrophoresis pattern seen in the following:

Liver Cirrhosis

Beta-Gamma Bridging
Describe the characteristic protein electrophoresis pattern seen in the following:

Emphysema

Decreased Alpha-1 Fraction
Describe the characteristic protein electrophoresis pattern seen in the following:

Nephrotic Syndrome

Very Decreased Albumin & a Decrease in most other protein fractions
Describe the characteristic protein electrophoresis pattern seen in the following:

Chronic Infections/Inflammation

Polyclonal Gammopathy
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