Chemistry Internship Study Questions Section 2

What primary hormone RAISES plasma CALCIUM levels?
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
What THYROID HORMONE acts to LOWER CALCIUM Levels?
Calcitonin
What Hormone is DEFECTIVE in Diabetes Insipidus?
ADH
What Endocrine gland regulates the secretion of ADH?
Posterior Pituitary
What triggers the secretion of ADH?
Hyperosmolality (Dehydration, Increased Glucose)
By what other name is ADH known by?
Vasopressin
Indicate whether the lab results will be normal, increased, or decreased in Diabetes Insipidus:

Urine Volume

Increased
Indicate whether the lab results will be normal, increased, or decreased in Diabetes Insipidus:

Urine Specific Gravity

Decreased
Indicate whether the lab results will be normal, increased, or decreased in Diabetes Insipidus:

Urine Osmolality

Decreased
Indicate whether the lab results will be normal, increased, or decreased in Diabetes Insipidus:

Serum Osmolality

Increased
Explain the Normal Feedback Relationship between ACTH and Cortisol
As Cortisol DECREASES, ACTH INCREASES.
ACTH Increased levels trigger secretion of Cortisol.
When Cortisol gets High enough, ACTH Decreases
Explain the Normal Expected variation of Cortisol between 8am and 8pm
Highest in the Morning.
Lowest in the Evening.
How will Cushing’s Disease affect this variation of Normal Cortisol between 8am and 8 pm?
No variation.
Levels will remain Increased regardless of time of day.
What condition “turns on” the RAA system?
Low BP OR Low Blood Volume
Aldosterone regulates the reabsorption of what analyte?
Sodium
The reabsorption of Sodium by regulation from Aldosterone occurs in what area of the body?
Distal Renal Tubles
What is the precursor substance of Steroid hormones?
Cholesterol
Compare/Contrast Cushing’s and Addison’s based on the following expected results:
A
[image]
Increased
Compare/Contrast Cushing’s and Addison’s based on the following expected results:
B
[image]
Increased
Compare/Contrast Cushing’s and Addison’s based on the following expected results:
C
[image]
Increased
Compare/Contrast Cushing’s and Addison’s based on the following expected results:
D
[image]
Decreased
Compare/Contrast Cushing’s and Addison’s based on the following expected results:
E
[image]
Increased
Compare/Contrast Cushing’s and Addison’s based on the following expected results:
F
[image]
Increased
Compare/Contrast Cushing’s and Addison’s based on the following expected results:
G
[image]
Decreased
Compare/Contrast Cushing’s and Addison’s based on the following expected results:
H
[image]
Decreased
Compare/Contrast Cushing’s and Addison’s based on the following expected results:
I
[image]
Decreased
Compare/Contrast Cushing’s and Addison’s based on the following expected results:
J
[image]
Increased
Compare/Contrast Cushing’s and Addison’s based on the following expected results:
K
[image]
Decreased
Compare/Contrast Cushing’s and Addison’s based on the following expected results:
L
[image]
Increased
Name the 2 primary catecholamine hormones produced by the adrenal medulla
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
What is the FINAL METABOLITE of these hormones (Epinephrine & Norepinephrine) which can be measured in urine?
VMA
What is the clinical significance of HIGH LEVELS of VMA?
May indicate severe adrenal disorder or pheochromocytoma
What hormone levels are used in the evaluation of male infertility?
FSH, LH, Testosterone
What is the primary function of FSH in a female?
Triggers secretion of estrogen
What is the primary function of LH in a female?
Stimulates estrogen and progesterone secretion.
Triggers ovulation
What is the primary function of Progesterone in a female?
Prepares uterus for implantation
When does the following hormone peak during a normal menstrual cycle:
FSH
1st 1/2 of cycle
When does the following hormone peak during a normal menstrual cycle:
LH
Just prior to ovulation
When does the following hormone peak during a normal menstrual cycle:
Progesterone
2nd 1/2 of cycle
The presence of what hormone is used to determine pregnancy?
HCG
How frequently does the level of HCG normally double in the 1st 8 weeks?
Every 2 days
In what condition would you see a lengthened doubling time of HCG?
Ectopic pregnancy
List an abnormal condition associated with high levels of HCG in males
Testicular Cancer
List an abnormal condition associated with high levels of HCG in nonpregnant females
Choriocarcinoma
Name the 2 primary hormones secreted by the thyroid gland
T3 & T4
What 2 lab tests are MOST Often used to assess thyroid function?
FT4 & TSH
What is the MOST COMMON Cause of HYPERTHYROIDISM?
Grave’s Disease
List some of the MOST Common Symptoms associated with HYPERTHYROIDISM
Restlessness, Hyperactivity, Weight Loss despite large appetite, Skin/Vision changes
What Common type of HYPOTHYROIDISM is associated with autoantibodies and plasma cell/lymphocyte infiltration of the Thyroid gland?
Hashimoto’s
List some of the MOST Common Symptoms associated with HYPOTHYROIDISM
Weight gain, Fatigue, Headaches, Memory Loss, Irritability, Cold Intolerance, Dry Skin, Brittle Hair
What is the adverse consequence (condition) that results from CONGNITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM?
Cretinism
-Arrested mental & physical development
Indicate whether the following test results would be Normal, Increased, or Decreased in the following conditions:
A
[image]
Normal
Indicate whether the following test results would be Normal, Increased, or Decreased in the following conditions:
B
[image]
Increased
Indicate whether the following test results would be Normal, Increased, or Decreased in the following conditions:
C
[image]
Increased
Indicate whether the following test results would be Normal, Increased, or Decreased in the following conditions:
D
[image]
Decreased
Indicate whether the following test results would be Normal, Increased, or Decreased in the following conditions:
E
[image]
Decreased
Indicate whether the following test results would be Normal, Increased, or Decreased in the following conditions:
F
[image]
Normal
Indicate whether the following test results would be Normal, Increased, or Decreased in the following conditions:
G
[image]
Decreased
Indicate whether the following test results would be Normal, Increased, or Decreased in the following conditions:
H
[image]
Increased
Indicate whether the following test results would be Normal, Increased, or Decreased in the following conditions:
I
[image]
Increased
Indicate whether the following test results would be Normal, Increased, or Decreased in the following conditions:
J
[image]
Decreased
Adequate removal of a Parathyroid tumor can be determined by performing Intraoperative PTH. How frequently are blood samples drawn during surgery?
Every 5-7 minutes
How much should the PTH levels FALL to indicate adequate removal of the Parathyroid tumor?
Look for 50% drop from the highest level
Prolactin is needed for what Normal body functions in the female?
Breast Development & Lactation
What would be the purpose of performing a dilutional prolactin?
Avoid Prozone
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