Chemistry Laws

Avogardro’s law

Equal volumes of gases under identical temperature and pressure conditions will contain equal numbers of particles (atoms, ion, molecules, electrons, etc.).


Avogadro’s Number= 6.02 .1023 atoms in a mole 

Boyle’s Law

 At constant temperature, the volume of a confined gas is inversely proportional to the pressure to which it is subjected.


Formula: PV=k or P1V1=P2V2 or P1/P2=V1/V2 (P=pressure; V=volume)

Charles’ Law

At constant pressure, the volume of a confined gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.


Formula: V=kT or V1/V2=T1/T2 (V= volume;T=temperature) 

Conservation of Energy
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed; the energy of the universe is constant. This is the First Law of Thermodynamics.
Conservation of Mass
Also known as Conservation of Matter. Matter can be neither created nor destroyed, though it can be rearranged. Mass remains constant in an ordinary chemical change.
Dalton’s Law

The pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.


PressureTotal=Pressure1+Presssure2+…Pressuren


Gay-Lussac’s Law

This law is about how pressure and temperature relate, which means the law assumes a constant volume of gas (meaning we assume the volume is not variable—it does not change). This law says that pressure is directly proportional to temperature.

 

Formula:  P1/P2=T1/T2

Ideal Gas Law

The state of an ideal gas is determined by its pressure, volume, and temperature.


Formula:  PV=nRT


where: P is the absolute pressure

               V is the volume of the vessel
                    n is the number of moles of gas
            R is the ideal gas constant
                 T is the absolute temperature

Dulong and Petit’s Law
Most metals require 6.2 cal of heat in order to raise the temperature of 1 gram-atomic mass of the metal by 1°C. 
Henry’s Law

The solubility of a gas (unless it is highly soluble) is directly proportional to the pressure applied to the gas.


Formula C=k*Pgas

 

where: C is the solubility of a gas at a fixed temperature in a particular solvent(M or ml gas/L)

k= Henry’s law constant(M/atm)

Pgas=Partial pressure of the gas(atm)