Chemistry Lecture Final

how to tell if an element is atomic or molecular
Atomic = an element that does not exist in nature diatomically
molecular = an element that is diatomic in nature (Br, I, N, Cl, H, O, F)
how to identify a molecular compound
has two or more covalently bonded nonmetals
ACETATE
C2H302-
CARBONATE
CO3 2-
HYDROGEN CARBONATE (BICARBONATE)
HCO3 2-
HYDROXIDE
OH-
NITRITE
NO2 –
NITRATE
NO3 –
CHROMATE
CRO4 2-
DICHROMATE
CR2O7 2-
PHOSPHATE
PO4 3-
HYDROGEN PHOSPHATE
HPO4 2-
DIHYDROGEN PHOSPHATE
H2PO4 –
AMMONIUM
NH4 +
HYPOCHLORITE
CLO –
CHLORITE
CLO2 –
CHLORATE
CLO3 –
PERCHLORATE
CLO4 –
PERMANGANATE
MN04 –
SULFITE
SO3 2-
HYDROGEN SULFITE (BISULFITE)
HSO3 –
SULFATE
SO4 2-
HYDROGEN SULFATE (BISULFATE)
HSO4 –
CYANIDE
CN –
PEROXIDE
O2 2-
how to identify a OXYACID
contain hydrogen oxygen and some other nonmetal
how to identify hydrocarbon
compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
how to identify a functionalized hydrocarbon
contains on OH functional group
molarity
mols of substance / liters of soln
oxidation
loss of electrons
reduction
gain of electrons
What are the postulates of John Daltons atomic theory of matter
1) all matter is composed of indivisible and indestructible atoms
2) an element is a type of matter composed of only one type of atom
3) a compound or molecule is a type of matter composed of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions
4) A chemical reaction is where a substance is changed into a new substance
what are the three temp scales measured relative too
Fahrenheit – measured relative to salt water
Celsius – measured relative to pure water
Kelvin – absolute, measured relative to motion of atoms
formula for Celsius to kelvin
C + 273.15
how to get to Fahrenheit from celcius
F-32/1.8
the law of conservation of matter
matter is neither created nor destroyed
the law of multiple proportions
elements can combine in more than one set of proportions, with each set of proportions corresponding to a diff compound
the law of definite proportions
all samples of a given compound have the same proportions of their constituent elements
what are cathode ray particles and who discovered them
electron streams, JJ Thompson
what is the definition of wavelength
the distance between any adjacent identical points on a wave
shorter wavelength = ?
higher energies
what is heat
energy in transit
the first law of thermodynamics
says that the total energy in the universe is constant
energy is released in a chemical reaction when
bonds are formed
energy is consumed in during a chemical reaction when
bonds are broken
fuels always have what type of enthalpy
a negative enthalpy, ie negative delta H
fuels are endo or exothermic
exothermic
standard state enthalpies are measured at what temp and pressure
25 C and 1 atm
amplitude
vertical height of a wave or depth of a trough
frequency
the number of wave crests that pass a through a stationary point in a given period of time
equation to find frequency (V)
frequency (v) = speed of light (c)/ wavelength (lambda)
unit used to define frequency
hertz (hz)
what is the photoelectric effect
the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them
how to measure the energy of a photon
energy (E) = h(plancks constant)*v(frequency)/wavelength (lambda)
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
the more accurately you know the position of an electron the less accurately you know the position and vice versa
principal quantum number (n) represents what
size and energy of the orbital (n can be 1-8)
angualar momentum quantum number (L)represents what
shape of the orbital (n-1)
magnetic quantum number (m sub L) represents what
orientation in space (-L through +L)
shape of the s orbital
spherical
shape of the p orbital
dumbbell
shape of the d orbital
double dumbbell
first ionization energy
minimum energy required to completely remove an electron from a ground state atom In the gas phase
hunds rule
every orbital in a subshell must be singly occupied before any one orbital is doubly occupied, all singly occupied must have same spin
pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers (must have opposite spin)
how to know if something will interact with magnet
full subshell = wont interact
not full subshell = will interact
five basic shapes of VSEPR theory
linear
bent
trigonal planar
trigonal pyramidal
tetrahedral
linear bond angle
180 degrees
trigonal planar bond angle
120 degrees
bent bond angle
109.5 or 120 degrees
tetrahedral bond angle
109.5
trigonal pyramidal bond angle
109.5
how to tell if a molecule is polar by looks
central atom has one or more lone pairs = polar
how to tell if a molecule is non polar by looks
central atom has no lone pairs and all of the outer atoms are identical = non polar
second way to tell if a molecule is polar by looks
central atom has no lone pairs and the outer atoms are not identical = polar
how to tell if something will have a resonance hybrid
central atom bonded to more than one oxygen with double or triple bonds it is a tipoff
what are the three postulates of kinetic molecular theory
1) the size of a particle is negligibly small
2) the avg kinetic energy of a particle is proportional to them temp in K
3) the collisions between particles and their containers are elastic
three types of intermolecular forces
dispersion (London forces)
Dipole-Dipole forces
Hydrogen Bonding
dispersion forces exist where
in all molecules
dipole-dipole forces exist where
in polar molecules
hydrogen bonding forces exist where
in polar molecules where H atoms are bonded to FON, super dipole force
how to change from liquid to gas
increase heat or reduce pressure
gasses are least ideal when
high pressure and low temp
a molecules weight relates to dispersion forces how
the heavier the molecule the higher the dispersion forces
how does boiling point relate to intermolecular forces
higher boiling point = stronger IMF
how do IMF relate to viscosity
high IMF = high viscosity
boiling occurs when the pressure of the vapor…
when the pressure of the vapor equals the pressure being exerted from surroundings