Chemistry Matter and Change Chap 5

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? – lambda

 

What does this symbol stand for and define it

Wavelength

 

shortest distance between two equivalent points on a continuous wave in meters, centimeters or nanometers

? – nu

 

What does this symbol stand for and define it

 

 

Frequency

 

Number of waves that pass a point per second measured in hertz

C

 

What does this symbol stand for and define it


what is the complete formula for determining C

Speed of Light Constant

C-= 3.00 x 108

 

C=??

Speed of Light Constant = Wavelength x Frequency

The distance from the origin of one wave to its crest
Amplitude
Which wave lengths bend more?

Shorter wave lengths (higher frequencies) bend more

 

[image]

 

Red has a longer wavelength (shorter frequency) and therefore bends the least.

What are the wavelengths of visible light?

400 nanometers to 700 nanometers

 

[image]

What are the names of the visible light spectrum in order from small wavelength to longer wavelength

Roy G Biv

 

Red

Orange

Yellow

Green

Blue

Indigo

violet

 

[image]

quantum
Minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
Formula for energy as a function of wave frequency

Plank’s Constant h=6.626 x10-34

 

Equantum=h?

 

As frequency increases energy increases

Photon
A particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy
Photoelectric effect
electrons from a metal are emitted when a certain frequency shines on the surface
Ground State
Lowest allowable energy state of an atom
?E=Ehigher orbit – Elower orbit

Formula for Orbital energy released when an electron drops from one orbital to another.

 

 

 

Lyman Series – Ultraviolet light (low frequency) emitted when electron drops to 1st orbital

 

Balmer Series:  Visible light emitted when electron drops to 2nd orbital

 

Paschen Series – Infrared light (high frequency) emitted when electron drops to 3rd orbital

De Broglie theory
All moving particles have wave characteristics (emit light) but wavelength is inversely proportional to mass so large objects wavelength is too low to see.
Heisenberg Uncertainity Principle
It is fundamentally impossible to know precisely both the velocity and position of a particle at the same time.
boundary of an atom
Volume that encloses 90% probability of containing its electrons
Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
Atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves
Principal Quantum Numbers (n)
Indicate the relative sizes and energy of atomic orbitals
Aufbau Principle ; Diagram

Aufbau  (from the German Aufbau meaning “building up, construction”)

 

Each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available.

 

[image]

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Pauli Exclusion
Each electron has an associated spin.  A single atomic orbital may contain 2 electrons but they must spin in opposite directions
Hunds Rule

Single Electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spin can occupy the same orbitals.

 

[image]

electron Configuration Notation
The electron configuration of an atom is the particular distribution of electrons among available shells. It is described by a notation that lists the subshell symbols, one after another. Each symbol has a subscript on the right giving the number of electrons in that subshell. For example, a configuration of the lithium atom (atomic number 3) with two electrons in the 1s subshell and one electron in the 2s subshell is written 1s22s1.

What element is represented by the electron configuratoin notation 

 

1s22s22p2

Carbon — 6 electrons

What element is represented by the electron configuratoin notation 

 

[Ne]3s1

Sodium

 

To use this shortcut it is necessary to know the noble gas number of electrons.  Since only the outside electrons are reactive and all the inside electrons represented by the noble gas that is before the element are non-reactive – it is more important to know about the valence electrons.

 

In this case there is 1 valence electron

Use the chart to write the Electron Configuration notation for Chlorine

 

[image]

[Ne]3s23p5

 

[Ne] – Neon is the noble gas before chlorine

3sfirst two columns on the left

3p5 5th element from the left in the 3P Group

Use the chart to write the Electron Configuration notation for Phosphorus

 

[image]

[Ne]3s23p3

 

[Ne] – Neon is the noble gas before chlorine

3sfirst two columns on the left

3p3 3rd element from the left in the 3P Group

What two elements are exceptions to the Aufbau method of electron configuration?

Chromium: Z:24 [Ar] 3d54s

and

Copper: Z:27 [Ar] 3d104s1

Name this element

 

1s1

Hydrogen

Name this element

 

1s2

Name this element

 

1s22s1

Name this element

 

1s2 2s2

Name this element

 

1s22s2 2p1

Name this element

 

1s22s2 2p2

Carbon

Name this element

 

1s22s2 2p3

Nitrogen

Name this element

 

1s22s2 2p4

Oxygen

Name this element

 

1s22s2 2p5

Fluorine

Name this element

 

1s22s2 2p6

Neon

name this element

 

[Ne] 3s1

Sodium

Name this element

 

[Ne] 3s2

Magnesium

Name this element

 

[Ne] 3s2 3p1

Aluminum

Name this element

 

[Ne] 3s2 3p2

Silicon

Name this element

 

[Ne] 3s2 3p3

Phosphorus

Name this element

 

[Ne] 3s2 3p4

Sulfur

Name this element

 

[Ne] 3s2 3p5

chlorine

Name this element

 

[Ne] 3s2 3p6

Argon

Name this element

 

[Ar] 4s1

Potassium

Name this element

 

[Ar] 4s2

Calcium
x

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