Chemistry MCA 1

electronegativity
ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is a compound
ionization energy
energy required to remove an electron from an atom
atomic radius
one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms when the atoms are joined
metal

element that is a good conductor of heat

 

transition metal

type of element characterized by the presence of electrons in the d orbital

 

periodic law
a repitition of properties that occurs when elements are arranges in order of increasing atomic number
cation
type of ion formed by group 2A elements
period
horizontal row in the periodic table
group

vertical column in the periodic table

 

electrons
subatomic particles that are transferred to form positive and negative ions
theory
a well tested explanation for a broad set of observations
“p” in 4p4 represents…
the orbital
wavelength formula
c/v
3.00X108/frequency
metals’ charge

positive charge- cations

 

non-metals’ charge
negative- gain electron- anion
significant #s in addition
answer will have the least number of decimal places as the original #s did
significant #s in multiplication
the answer will have the least # of significant #s as the original numbers
Kelvins to degrees celcius
subtract 273
Degrees celcius to Kelvins
add 273
density =
mass/ volume
mass=
DxV
volume=
m/d
Democritus
matter is made of small particles called atoms
Dalton

•Conservation of Matter

•a compound will contain the same particles in the same proportion no matter its mass

•Atomic Theory

Dalton’s Atomic Theory

•all elements are composed of atoms

•atoms of an element are identical

•different atoms can combine to form compounds

•chemical reactions are created when atoms are joined, separated, or rearranged

Rutherford
said nucleus contained protons and neutrons
mass number
A

protons + neutrons

J. J. Thomson
plum pudding model of atom
Bohr

•said electrons were around the nucleus

•proposed the quantum numbers

n
main energy level
l
sublevel
m

orientation of the orbital

-2, -1, 0, 1, 2 

s
spin of electron
-1/2  or +1/2
Aufbau Principle
electrons will be placed at the lowest energy level first, and go up from there (1s)
Pauli Exclusion Principle
no two atoms may have the same set of quantum numbers
Hund’s Rule
electrons enter each orbital before doubling up
waves

wavelength= c/v

 

c= wavelength x frequency (v)

 

v= c/wavelength

Planck’s constant

h

6.63×10-34 js

Lyman series
electrons come down to level 1
UV light
Balmer series

drops to level 2

visible light

Paschen series

drops to level 3

infared light

Planck
light has wave and particle properties
Louis deBroglie

matter has wave and particle properties

wave character is important for electrons

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