## Chemistry Module 12

 What is the definition of pressure?
 The force per unit are exerted on an object.
 What are the units that can measure pressure?
 Pascal (Pa) Atmospher (atm) Torr (torr) Millimeters of mercury (mmHg)
 Study Boyle’s law and how it relates to volume ; Page 384 and 385
 If pressure is decreased, the volume is of the gas will increase ; Vice versa ; If the pressure is increased, the volume of the gas will decrease. ; ;
 What is the mathematical equation to express Boyle’s law?
 P1V1 = P2V2
 What did Jaques Charles added to the investigation of gas and volume?
 The effects of temperature on a gas and the volume.
 Define Charles’s Law
 At constant pressure, the temperature and volume of a gas are linearly proportional.
 How can Charles’s law be expressed mathematically?
 V                   T   = constant     or   V1    V2 T1 = T2
 In an “absolute temperature scale”, what temperature will  you not be able to cool a gas to?
 273.14° C   or 0.00 Kelvin
 Define extrapolation
 Following an established trend in the data even though there is no data available for that region
 Explain how the Combined Gas Law combines Boyle’s law and Charles’s law together?
 The combined gas las will measure the pressure, the volume and the temperature of a gas.
 How can the Combined Gas Law be mathematically expressed?
 PV                    T     = constant   or     P1V1    P2V2 T1   =  T2
 What temperature scale must you use to use any of the equations you learned in this module?
 Kelvin   To convert to Kelvin, add 273.15 to the Celsius temperature.
 Study Example 12.1 on pages 392, 393, and 394
 What makes a gas an ideal gas?   Hint: you will not have to memorize these rules but be able to recognize these rules in a true/false statement
 Go to page 394 and study the 3 properties of an ideal gas
 Why is a “Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) important?
 It is a reference to determine whether or not a gas will behave in an ideal manner
 Define Dalton’s law ;
 When two or more ideal gases are mixed together, the total pressure of the mixture is equal to the sum of the pressure of each individual gas.
 How can Dalton’s law be expressed mathematically?
 PT = P1 + P2 + P3 ….
 Define vapor pressure
 The pressure exerted by the vapor which sits on top of any liquid
 When does vapor pressure increase?
 When the temperature of the liquid increases
 Define boiling point
 The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to normal atmospheric pressure
 Study example 12.2 on page 398
 Study example 12.3 on page on pages 399, 400
 Study example 12.4 on pages 401 and 402
 How is the Ideal Gas Law expressed mathematically?
 PV = nRT                                    L*atm                   R = 0.0821 mole *K
 Study example 12.5 on pages 403 and 404
 Study examples 12.6 on pages 406, 407, and 408
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