Chemistry Notes

Qualitative
Observation made by using the senses.
ex) yellow color
Quantitative
Observation made by measurement.
Two categories of matter by composition
1. pure – Only one kind of matter
2. Mixture – different kinds of matter
Substance
Has the same fixed composition and properties. Any pure matter
Examples of a substance
sugar, salt, sand
Examples of a mixture
sugar and coffee
sugar and salt
coffee and milk
Mixture
Each substance is not changed
Catalyst
substance that makes the chemical reaction go faster
Electrolysis
Break down by using electric current or through an electroylyte
Combustion
Chemical process that produces heat; oxidation (O2 > O)
Combustion
May cause dizziness and loss of oxygen when inhaled.
O (oxygen atom)- Metabolic poison
O2 (oxygen molecule)- Needed for survival
Examples of combustion
– Burning fossil fuel
– Rusting
– Combination reaction
– Fireworks
– Cooking : baking soda with vinegar
: vinegar with egg shell
Respiration
Process of breathing and getting energy for animals
Photosynethesis
Process of breathing and getting energy for plants
Diatomic molecules
Consist of two atoms in a molecule, occur naturally.
7 diatomic molecules
– O2 (oxygen)
– H2 (hydrogen)
– N2 (Nitrogen)
– F2 (Fluorine)
– Cl2 (Chlorine)
– Br2 (Bromine)
– I2 (Iodine)
Alloys
a combination of 2 or more metals
Calcium
Cobalt
Copper
Carbon
– Ca
– Co
– Cu
– C
Substances
– Solute: the dissolved substance
– solvent: dissolving substance
Water
universal solvent
Glucose
Sucrose
– simplest form of carbohydrates (c6H12O6)
– table sugar (C12H22O11)
Physical Change
change that rearranges molecules but does not really form new substances.
Chemical Change
change that results in the formation of new substances
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