Chemistry of Matter

Chemistry
the scientific study of matter, the principal and chemical changes affecting matter and the energy changes that accompany those processes
Chemist
scientists who studey matter, its properties and changes
Biochemistry 
the study of chemical reaction , such as growth, reproducrion and respoiration, that occur within a living organism
pH

Potential hydrogen 


 

pH Scale


Scale of pH Balance

.5 —– Muratic Acid  (Most Acidic)

2 —– Lemon

4 —– Peroxide

4.5 —– Skin

5.5 —– Skin

6 —– Urine

6.5 —– Saliva

7 —– Water 

6.5/7.5 –Shampoo

7.5 —– Blood

11.5 —– Chemical Depilatory

14 —– Lye               (Most Alkaline)

Organic Chemistry
deals with all matter that is now living or was alive at one time. This is the  stufey of matter containing carbon which is present in all plants and animals
Inorganic Chemistry
Deals with matter that was never living and does not contain carbon
Matter
anything that occupies space
Solids
Mattter with definite Weight, Volume & Shape
Liquids
Matter with definite Weight and Volume but no Shape
Gases
Matter with definite Weightbut indefinite Volume and Shape
Physical Change
a change in the physical form of a substance without creating a new substance possessing a distinct material composition (water to ice)
Chemical Change
a change in a substance that creates a new substance with different material characteristics from those of the original substance
Sublimination
The process of a solid or gas changing states without becoming a liquid
Energy
The ability to do work to accomplish some change
Elements
Basic units of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by any chemical reaction
Periodic law
The unifying concept used to organize elements and their similarities
Atomic Numbers
The number shown in the Periodic Table with each element and indicates how many protons are in a simple atom of the element
Atoms
The smallest complete unit of an element
Proton
Have a positive electrical charge and identify the atom
Neutrons
Have no electrical charge
Electrons
Have a negaive electrical charge
Nucleus
Dense core at the center of an atom formed by tightly packed together protons and neutrons (control center)
Free  Electrons
Electron in the outermost orbit that is easily moved from its orbit.  if another atom has a shortage of electrons, the free electron will attempt to move tot he other atom
Molecule
smallest particle of a compound
Compounds

When the atoms that combing are different, they create compounds created by chemically uniting two different elements

Ex: water (H2O) and hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

Oxidation
 A substance loses an electron and oxygen is acquired
Reduction

 A substance gains an electron and oxygen is released 

(release of oxygen to the skin)

Ionic Bond
When positive and negaive ions join, they are held together by an ionic bond
Covalent Bond
If no trading is taking place and the atoms are sharing the electrons, they are held together by covalent bonds.
Chemical Bond
Forces that hold atoms together in compounds
Biochemistry
Branches of science that deals with the chemicals related to life processes and their reactions within the body
Proteins
Helps the body to construct and renew itself
Carbohydrates
Used by the body to store energy and play a key role in metabolism
Lipids
Components that fill the intercellular spaces in the skin also called intercellular element
Enzymes

Materials that dissolve and breakdown large molecules into smaller ones 

Ex: papain

Amino Acid 
Compounds conisisting of carben, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen that join togehter in chains to form protein
Peptide Bond
A bond unifying two amino acid groups
Polypeptide Chain
Thousands of amino acids connected lenght-wise to form a chain
Monomers
Basic building block molecules that connect with each other to form larger, more complex compounds
Polymers
Groups of monomers that bond together
Saccharide
A simple uint of carbohydrate
Monosaccharide
A single saccharide, a simpleu sugar, such as glucose
Disaccharide
Two saccharides linked together, such as sucurose (table sugar)
Polysaccharide
Mny saccharides linked to form larger, more complex molecules, such as starch
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