chemistry precision and design

accuracy
how close a measurement is to the actual value
atom
the smallest particleof an element that retains the characteristics of the element
boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid is changed into a gas; the vapor pressure of liquid and gas are equal at this temperature
chemistry
the branch of science that deals with the study of the composition, structure and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes
compound
a substance which can be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances
density
the mass per unit volume of a substance
element
a substance which cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
endothermic reation
a reaction in which the products have a higher heat energy content than the reactants
entropy
a quantity described as the randomness of a substance or system
exact numbers
numbers that result from counting or definitions and do not limit the number of significant figures in an answer
exothermic reaction
a reactiopn in which the products have a lower heat energy content than the reactants
formula
a grouping of elemental symbols which tells not only what types of atoms compose the compound but also the number of each type of atom in one molecule of the compound
gas
a state of matter characterized by particles that are far apart compared to their sizes and which are able to move about quite freely; a gas is compressible and has no definite volume or shape
kinentic energy
the energy possessed by matter due to its motion
law of conservation of energy
energy is neither created nor destroyed in chemical or physical processes
law of conservation of mass-energy
matter and energy can neither be created nor destroyed only changed from one form to another; the first law of thermodynamics
law of definite composition
the ratios of the masses of each element in a given compound are always the same
law of multiple proportions
when two elements can combine to form more tha one compound, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed amount of the other element are in a ratio of small whole numbers
liquid
a state of matter characterized by particles that are close together but are able to move about; a liquid has a definite volume but no definite shape
mass
a measure of the quantity of matter in an object
matter
the materials that compose the physical univers; anything that occupies space and has mass
melting point
the temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid; the vapor pressures of solid and liquid are equal at the temperature
mixture
two or more elements ore compounds that are physically mixed but not chemically combined
molecule
a group of two or more atoms that are linked together by chemical bonds; the smallest particle that characterizes a compound
plasma
a fourth state of matter, in which matter is partially borken down into electrons and ions
precision
the reproducibility or repeatability of a measurement
scientific notation
a form for conveniently expressing very large or very small numbers in the form MX10x; where M is a number between 1 and 10 and x is an integer
second law of thermodynamics
the principle that every system left to itself will tend toward a condition of maximum entropy or disorder
significant figures
a method used by scientists to more clearly represent the certainty or uncertainty of a measurement by limiting th enumber of figures in an answer; by convention, all the certain digits along with one uncertain digit are considered significant
solid
a state of matter characterized by particles that are close together, held in fairly rigid positions about which they vibrate; a solid has definite volume and shape
substance
a class of matter that is homogeneous, of definite composition, and has its own unique properties which make it different from every other substance; a substance may be either an element or a ocmpound
weight
a measure of the force of gravity upon an object
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