Chemistry Retake

Kinetic
matter is made of particles that are always in motion
Properties of Gases (8)
-Expansion
-Fluidity
-Low density
-Compressibility
-Diffusion
-Effusion
-Indefinite volume
-Indefinite shape
Least common state of matter
liquid
Definite Volume, Indefinite Shape
liquid
Takes on the shape of container
fluid
Has High Density
liquids
Diffuses
Liquid, Gas
intermolecular forces pull particles together, forming smallest surface; examples – raindrop, paperclip floating
Surface Tension
when a liquid is attracted to a solid
Capillary Action
Vaporization
liquid to gas (energy added)
at the boiling point, liquid to gas throughout – bubbles, (intermolecular forces broken)
Crystalline (1 of 2 types of solid)
geometric patterns, definite melting pt
Amorphous (2 of 2 types of solid)
random arrangement, melts over a range of temperatures
Solids (general)
high density, incompressible, low rate of diffusion, and definite shape and volume
Dynamic Equilibrium
2 opposing changes at equal rates
LeChatlier’s principle
equilibrium systems adjust to stress to attain a new equilibrium
ex. Iodine bottle
Volatile
becomes gas easily
Endothermic Changes of State (energy added)
melting, sublimation, vaporization
Exothermic Changes of State (energy removed)
freezing, deposition, condensation
Melting
Solid –> liquid (added)
Sublimation
Solid –> gas (added)
Freezing
Liquid –> solid (energy removed)
Deposition
Gas –> solid (energy removed)
Condensation
Gas –> liquid (energy removed)
Chart Labels
Ti
Tf
Plateau
Bp
Mp
Fp of water
-Ti = initial temperature (beginning)
-Tf= final temperature (ending)
-Plateau = flat part; indicates a change of state.
-Bp = boiling point; water – 100 degrees C
-Mp = melting point; water – 0 degrees C; pdb 53 degrees C
-Fp of water – 0 degrees C; Mp = fp
Molar Heat of Vaporization
Energy required to change one mole of liquid to gas at b.p. (energy unit = joule)
Examples of Heat of Vaporization
Sweating/ air conditioners and refrigerators use energy to change liquid to gas.
Molar Heat of Fusion
Energy needed to change 1 mole of solid to liquid at m.p.
Example of Heat of Fusion
Energy is used to change a solid into a liquid – example – ice in drink
Critical point
where critical pressure meets critical temperature
Triple point
all 3 phases present
Normal boiling point
where s.p. crosses liquid-gas line
Normal melting point
where s.p. crosses solid-liquid line
Critical temperature
only gas present above this temp
Phases are fluid
Liquid
Most Ordered Phase
Solid
Most Dense Phases
Liquid and Solid
Phases that are relatively incompressible
Liquid and Solid
Phases that diffuse rapidly
Gas and Liquid
Has an indefinite shape and a definite volume
Liquid
Has the most distance between particles
Gas
Para dichlorobenzene in our lab was an example
Freezing
Dry ice and iodine are examples
Sublimation
Frost in an example
Deposition
2 than occur at the same temperature
Melting and Freezing
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