Chemistry Review Cards

Properties of the Alkali Metals

o   Very reactive due to single valence electron


o   All metals


o   Typically form salts

Properties of Alkali Earth Metals

  • Reactive

       Properties of transition metals (Groups 3 – 12)

o   Can have varying oxidation number/Ionic Charge

          Halogens (Group 7)

o   Very reactive because almost a full shell

o   Gas at standard condition

 

o   Form salts with alkali metals

          Noble Gases (Group 8)

o   Not reactive due to full valance shells – Stable

Rules of the Stock Method

          If transition metal, state element, then roman numeral in brackets relative to the number of borrowed electrons

 

How to name Covalent bonded molecules?

Use a prefix based on # of given elements in the molecule:

o   Prefixes:

§  1 = mono

§  2 = di

§  3 = tri

§  4 = tetra

§  5 = Penta

 

§  6 = Hexa….

How to name Ionic bonded molecules?

No need to add prefix.

Metal first, gas second; suffix of “ide”

What occurs during a    Single Displacement reaction?

AB + C —> AC + B

Double Displacement
AB + CD —> AC + BD
Decomposition
AB —> A + B
Combustion

Combustible + O—> H2O + CO2

Synthesis
A + B —> AB
What is the law of conservation of mass?

Matter is neither created nor destroyed

What information do the rows of the periodic table give you?

 Rows 1,2,4-8 predicts # of valence electrons

What information do the periods of the periodic table give you?
Periods indicate the # of shells an element has
What are the properties of an Acid?
Sour, induct electricity, react with metals to make hydrogen gas, reactions with carbonates to release carbon dioxide, turns litmus red, contains hydronium
What are the properties of a Base?

o   Bitter, Slippery, Conduct electricity, substance that has hydroxide or forms in water

What is an exothermic reaction?

   Exothermic reaction is the release of energy from a system to the surroundings (Heat) due to chemical reaction

What is an endothermic reaction?

o   Endothermic reaction is the absorption of energy from the system (Cold) due to a chemical reaction

What is the rate of reaction in reference to a chemical reaction?
Refers to the likelihood of a chemical reaction. How often, and how likely a reaction will occur due to various factors.
What are the factors that affect rate of reaction, and how do they increase or decrease this rate?

Temperature – Increase of temperature will increase kinetic energy of the molecules, therefore increases rate of reaction

 

Surface Area – increase of surface area allows for more contact with reactant molecules, therefore increases rate of reaction

 

Nature of Reactants – Change of rate is different based on how reactive a reactant is

 

Catalysts – These complex compounds lower the required energy for reactions

 

Concentration – more molecules = higher likelihood for reaction