Chemistry Spring Final

What is an empirical formula?
Formula with the smallest subscripts.
What is a molecular formula?
Formula with the largest subscripts.
What is molar mass?
The mass of one mole of a substance
What is a solute?
Something that is dissovled into another substance
What is a solvent?
A substance that is doing the dissolving

Electromagnetic spectrum from shortest wavelength to longest wavelength 

or

from high energy to low energy 

Gamma Ray

X-Ray

Ultraviolet

Visible 

Infrared

Microwave

Radio Wave

What is electronegativity?
The attraction of an atom for a BONDING pair of elements
What is ionic bonding?

Ionic bonding is a CHEMICAL bond that involves both a METAL and a NONMETAL through electrostatic attraction. 

or

A bond formed by attraction between two OPPOSITE charged ions

What are characteristics of exothermic reactions?

Releases heat

Change in H is NEGATIVE 

Bond FORMING

occur in the PRODUCTS

 

Reactants above Products

What are characteristics of endothermic reactions?

Absorption of heat 

Change in H is POSITIVE 

Bond BREAKING

occur in the REACTANTS

 

Products about Reactants

What is rate of reaction?
The increase in concentration of product per unit of time 
Ammonium
NH+4
Ethanoate
C2H3O2
Chlorate
ClO3
Chlorite
ClO2
Cyanide
CN
Bicarbonate
HCO3
Nitrate
NO3
Nitrite
NO2
Carbonate
CO32-
Chronate
CrO42-
Dichromate
Cr2O72-
Sulfate
SO42-
Sulfite
SO32-
Phosphate
PO43-
Bronsted Lowry Acid
Substance that can donate a hydrogen ion (proton) 
Bronsted Lowry Base
Any substance that can accept a hydrogen ion (proton)
What is a conjugate pair?

Bronsted Lowry Acid and Bases are a conjugate pair. 

 

The pairs differ by only ONE hydrogen

What is a Lewis acid?
Electron Pair ACCEPTOR
What is a Lewis Base?
An electron pair DONOR 
What kind of reactions are combustion and neutralization?
Exothermic
What molecules are polar?

H2

NH3

C3H6O

HBr

NCl2

ClF

CH3Cl

What is dynamic equilibrium?
A reaction has not stopped, so forward and backward reactions are still occuring