Chemistry – SSC

Solids
Particles held together by mutual attraction.
Particles in motion but only jostle each other
Change direction and velocity but occupy same space
Apply heat, speed increases pushing
Liquids
Organised structure collapses
Particles continue to attract to liquid has constant volume at constant temp
Particles move freely allowing liquid to glow
Gas
Particles break attraction & vaporise to gas
Particles much further apart
Inbetween is empty space
Particles move in straight lines unless collide with another particle.
Anode, Anion
Anode is +ve charge
Attracts anions
Cathode, Cation
Cathode is -ve charge
Attracts cations

Remember the cathode attracts cations or the cathode attracts + charge. The anode attracts negative charge.

Atoms
Subatomic particles
Protons: +ve
Electrons: -ve
Neutrons: No charge
Atomic mass
Combined weight of protons and neutrons
Atomic number
Number of electrons (and therefore protons)
Element
Smallest unit that anything can be broken down into and still retain the characteristics of itself
Protons
Condensed energy from the big bang – made of quarks

Weighs 1, has +ve charge, smallest unit of electrical charge, also 1

Quark
Energy that has mass – also (strangeness and charm)
Higgs Boson
Glue that holds quarks together
Neutron
Also weighs 1, made of quarks. Explode a neutron, get 1x proton, 1x electron

Different numbers of neutrons in nucleus give different isotopes

No charge

Nucleus
Contains protons & neutrons, nearly whole mass of atom, tiny compared to electron cloud, has +ve charge.
Electrons
Move around the nucleus
Have -ve charge
Virtually no mass
Occupy electron shells
Electron shells explain whole of chemistry.
Electron Shell
All atoms seek a full electron shell
2, 8, 8, 8 etc
Outer shell is valance shell
Valance shell determines reactivity
Ions
dump electrons to +ve charge (anion)
steal electrons to -ve charge (cation)

Swapping of ions for a molecular ionic bond

What is life?
Not in equilibrium – not dead
Water
Can make & break chemical bonds (solvent)
Has polarity due to electron orbit
Liquid water on earth due to ‘Goldilocks’ zone
Hydration Spheres
Inorganic compound dissociated to form electrolytes in hydration sphere

Using hydrations spheres cells can utilise ionic charges to do work.

Have charge, so can move inorganic compounds around the body.

Hydrolysis
Water breaks the bonds of complex molecules & components of water added to the chain
Dehydration synthesis
Adds water to equation to create bonds then removes the water to form chemicals.
Osmosis
Flow of water across a semi permeable membrane from hypertonic (more) to hypotonic (less)

Force = osmotic potential

Diffusion gradient
Movement of particles from high concentration to low concentration – everything has different diffusion gradient
Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O > C6H12O6 + O2

Two way equation – can perform hydrolysis to convert glucose to energy

Carbohydrate
Contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a
ratio of 1:2:1

Cells use carbs for food & structure

Saccharides
Monosaccharides: single sugar.

Dissacharide – 2 monosaccharides joined with dehydration snthesis – sucrose

Polysaccharides – strings of monosacchardies joined with dehydration synthesis. Cellulose & starch.

Glycogen
Excess polysaccharides stored as glycogen in muscle cells. Also made in muscles. Used as fast fuel.
Lipids
Insoluble in water
Hydrophobic
Twice as much energy per gram as carbs
Fatty acids
Long carbon chains with carboxylic acid group – COOH
Used by body as fuel for cells.
Can be converted to phospholipids
Reacted with alcohol to form waxes
Few cannot be synthesised & must be obtained from diet – essential fatty acids.
Saturated fatty acid
Carbon atom in tail has 4 single covalent bonds
Unsaturated fatty acid
One or more single bond replaced with double covalent bond. Changes shape of hydrocarbon tail and way matabolised
Mono-unsaturated fatty acid
Single double bond in hydrocarbon tail
Polyunsaturated
Multiple double bonds
Glyceride
Fatty acids joined together with glycerol & dehydration synthesis – monoglyceride, diglyceride & triglyceride.
Triglyceride
Provide energy reserves
Provide insulation
Provide protection around organs.
Stored in the body as lipid droplets
Can accumulate fat soluble chemicals such as drugs and toxins
Eicosanoids
Lipids derived from arachidonic acid which can’t be synthesised by the body
Released by cells to direct cell activity – very powerful.
Example is prostaglandin – released by damaged tissue, stimulated nerve endings and produces pain.
Communication cells.
Steroids
Large lipid molecules, share distinctive carbon framework
Cholesterol – important for plasma membranes
Steroid hormones (testosterone) involved in sexual function, tissue metabolism and mineral balance.
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