Chemistry Test #1

 

 

 

All Of The Following Statements Are True Except…




a) laws are statements of relationships that seem to always be the same

b) theories are proven explanations of experiemental observations

c) hypothesis are tentative explanations of experimental observations

d) Laws summarize facts of nature and rarely change

e) theories are unified principles that explain a body of facts

 

 

 

Approximately How Many Elements Are Found In Nature?

 

 

 

90

 

 

 

 

A Chemical Compound Is…

 

 

A pure substance that is composed of two or more different elements

 

 

 

 

Examples of a Physical Property

 

 

odor, taste, color, appearance, melting point, boiling point, and density

 

 

 

Examples of Chemical Properties…

 

 

Corrosiveness, flammability, acidity, toxicity, and other characteristics.

 

 

Mixture is….

 

 

 

Is a substance comppsed of two or more components in proportions that can vary from one sample to another

ex. sugar water.

 

 

 

Compound:

 

 

 

A substance composed of two or more elements

 

 

When Converting Kelvin to Celcuis

 

 

 

K – 273 = C

 

 

 

When converting Celcius to Kelvin…

 

 

 

C + 273 = K

 

 

 

Distillation

 

 

 

A process in which the mixture is heated to boil off the easily vaporized liquids

 

 

 

 

 

 

Filtration

 

 

 

The mixtured is poured through a funnel

 

 

 

Intensive Property

 

 

 

One that is independent of the amount of the substance. Ex. Density

 

 

 

 

Extensive Property

 

 

One that depends on the amount of the substance

ex. Mass

 

 

 

According to Kinetic Molecular Theory…

 

 

 

 

Particles in a liquid are close together, but they are not confined to specific positions.

 

 

 

Solution

 

 

 

A Homogenous Mixture of two substances

 

 

 

Accuracy of Measurements

 

 

 

Accurancy is an indicator of how close a measurement is to the correct value

 

 

Precision of Measurements

 

 

Precision is an indicator of how close two or more measurements are to each other.

 

 

 

Daltons Atomic Theory

 

1) Matter is composed of Atoms

2) Atoms are Indivisible and Indestructible

3) All atoms of a given element are identical

 

Both 2 and 3 Were proven wrong

 

 

 

 

 

Milikan Oil Experiement

 

 

Determined the charge of an electron

 

 

 

 

Rank Particles from Highest to Lowest Mass

 

 

 

Neutron, Proton, Electron

 

 

 

J. J Thompson

 

 

Determined the charge to mass ratio of an electron by deflecting cathode rays with magnetic and electric fields with cathode ray tube. He also created the plum pudding model. Suggested positive charge was inside and electrons were outside

 

 

 

Gamma Rays are..

 

 

 

high energy radiation

 

 

 

Photographic Plates

 

 

 

First evidence for the disintegration of nuclei was obtained

 

 

 

Beta Particles

 

 

 

Are identical to electrons

 

 

 

Alpha Particles

 

 

 

are 7000 times more massive than electrons

 

 

 

After Rutherfords Gold Foil Experiment he concluded that..

 

 

Atoms are composed of a small, dense nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons

 

 

 

Amu is defined as…

 

 

 

1/12 the mass of one carbon- 12 atoms

 

 

 

Mass Spectrometry

 

 

 

The method used to determine the exact masses of Isotopes and their relative abundance

 

 

 

Isotope

 

 

 

Atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons

 

 

What Element comprises over Three quarters of the Earths atomosphere?

 

 

 

Nitrogen

 

 

 

What are the two most abundant elements in the Earth’s Crust?

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Oxygen and silicon

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Marie Curie

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Was the first person to isolate the element polonium, which she named after he native country

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Allotropes

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Same state of matter. Pure carbon can exisit as a diamond, graphite, and buckerministerfullerene

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Mendeleev’s

 

 

 

first arranged the periodic table by placing the elements in increasing mass.

 

 

 

Brimestone or Burning Stone are ancient names for what element?

 

 

 

Sulfur

 

 

 

What are the fiour elements comprise approximately 99% of the atoms of the human body?

 

 

 

Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, and Nitrogen

 

 

 

What are the names of the Electromatic Spectrum from Greatest wavelength to Smallest?

 

 

Radio, Microwaves, Infrared, Visible Light, Ultraviolet Light, X-Ray, Gamma Rays

 

 

 

Name the Electromatic Spectrum from Great Potential Energy to Smallest.

 

 

Gamma Rays, X rays, Ultraviolet, Visible Light, Infrared, Microwaves, Radiowaves.

 

 

 

According to the Photoelectric effect, what is the effect of the increasing wavelength of the light that strikes the metal surface?

 

 

The energy of the ejected electrons decreases

 

 

 

Electron Diffration

 

 

 

Was the first experiment to show that electrons can have wave properties

 

 

 

 

Schrodinger Equation

 

 

 

Can be solved to find the probability of finding an electron in a region of space

 

 

 

The “n” Orbital is the

 

 

 

Oribital Size

 

 

 

The “l” Quantum number is associated with

 

 

 

Orbital Shape

 

 

 

“Ml” quantum number is associated with..

 

 

Orbital Orientation

 

 

 

Heinsburg Uncertainty Principle

 

 

 

 

It is impossible to simultaneously measure the exact position and momentum of an electron

 

 

 

A node is…

 

 

 

A region of an electron probability density graph where the probability of finding an electron is zero

 

 

 

The lowest energy state of an atom is called

 

 

 

 

ground state

 

 

 

The orientation of an orbital space is known as

 

 

 

magnetic quantum number

 

ml

 

 

 

What is a photon?

 

 

 

A massless particle of radiation

 

 

 

The maximum height for a wave is…

 

 

 

amplitude

 

 

 

What evidence does the photoelectric effect provide that photons are not only waves?

The photon electric effect provides evidence that an electron is ejected when a single particle of light interacts with a metal surface. When photons of sufficent energy strike a metal surface, electrons are ejected. The number of ejected electrons is proprtion to the number of protons striking the surface. If light was only a wave, then increasing the intensity of light should increase the energy striking the surface and thus increase the energy of the ejected electrons

 

 

 

Phase of Orbitals is

 

 

 

The sign of the amplitude of the wave, can be positive or negative

 

 

 

Paramagnetic

 

 

 

A substance that contains unpaired electrons is attracted to a magnetic field

 

 

 

Ferromagnetic

 

 

 

Substances that retain their magnetism after they are withdrawn from a magnetic field

 

 

The Pauli Exclusion Principle States that

 

 

 

no two electrons in an atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers

 

 

Diamagnetic

 

 

 

The state of an atom or ion that contains only paired electrons and is therefore slightly repelled by an external magnetic field.

Ex. Ba

 

 

 

Hunds Rule States

 

 

The most stable arrangement of electrons (for ground state configuration) is when there are the maximum number of unpaired electrons, all with the same spin.

 

 

 

Ionization Energy

 

 

 

How much energy it takes to remove an electron

 

 

 

Electron Afffinity

 

 

 

How much this element is attracted to an electron. How much does it really want to gain an electron.

 

IT IS MEASURING ELECTRONEGATIVITY

 

 

 

Excited state is when

 

 

 

n is greater than 1

 

 

 

Bohr’s model

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Only works for hydrogen

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Interference

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Interaction between waves

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Diamagnetic:

Paramagnetic:

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unpaired electrons

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paired electrons

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Conversion: Kilo- Gram

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1g=1*10^3kg

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Conversion: Centi-Gram

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1g= 1*10^2 cg

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Conversion: Mili

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1g= 1*10^3mg

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Conversion: Micro

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1g= 1*10^6

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Conversion: Nano

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1g=1*10^9

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Conversion: Pico

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1g=1*10^12

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ionization energies

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the amount of energy that is required to gain an electron

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An Atomic radius is..

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Half the distance between two metal atoms in a pure crystal of the metal

x

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