Chemistry Test 2

What is a hydrocarbon?
a compound consisting of only hydrogen and carbon
Properties of hydrocarbons

-can be single, double, or triple bonds

-bonds are always non-polar

-are saturated if all bonds are single

What is an Alkene?

Carbon-Carbon double bond

C=C

What is a Haloalkane?

1 or more halogen atoms

F,Cl,Br,I

What is an Ether?

Oxygen atom bonded to 2 carbons

 

-O-

 

***Alcohols & Ethers can have the same molecular formula***

What is an Thiol?

Thiol is -SH group

 

Properties:

-have strong odors

-used to detect gas leaks

-found in onions, oysters, and garlic

What is an Aldehyde?

A carbonyl group (carbon-oxygen double bond) between carbon atoms

 

  O  

||

   C-H

 

What is a Ketone?

Carbonyl group (carbon-oxygen double bond) between carbon atoms

O

||

C

 

 

What is a Carboxylic Acid?

Carboxyl group (C-O double bond between carbon atoms)

O       

||       

C-O-H

What is an Ester?

A carboxyl group with -H replaced by a Carbon

O   

||   

C-O

What is an Amine?

Nitrogen atom with one or more carbon groups

-N-

What is an Amide?

Carboxyl group bonded to nitrogen

 

O   

||   

C-N

What shape is methane?

Tetrahedral

bond angles 109.5

 

What shape is Ethylene?

Planar (flat molecule)

bond angles 120

What shape is Acetylene?

Linear

bond angles 180

What are the properties of Cis & Trans Isomers?

  1. double bone is fixed
  2. cis/trans isomers are possible
  3. all terminal alkenes (begin or end with a C=CH2) do NOT exist as cis/trans isomers

Properties of Organic Compounds

(C,H, sometimes O,S,N,P) or 

(F,Br,I,Cl)

  • mostly covalent bonding
  • nonpolar
  • melting point usually low
  • boiling point usually low
  • flammabiliy high
  • not soluble in water unless polar group present

Properties of Inorganic Compounds 

(most metals & non metals)

ex: Na & Cl

  • Many are ionic, some are covalent
  • melting point usually high
  • boiling point usually high
  • flammability – low
  • most are soluable, unless nonpolar

Properties of Alkanes

  • nonpolar
  • insoluable in water
  • less dense in water
  • flammable in water
  • carbons 5-8 makes up gasoline
  • boiling pts decrease for branched alkanes
  • boiling points increased for cycloalkanes (no bond rotation)

Alkanes undergo combustion

 

by reacting with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy

  • are typically not very reactive due to strong C-C single bonds

Alkane + O2 > CO2 + H2O + energy

Properties of Aromatic Compounds

  • have higher melting & boiling points
  • are flat that why they are higher points
  • para-xylene has a higher melting point than benzene
  • ortho & meta-xylene have lower melting points than benzene
  • are more dense than other hydrocarbons but less dense than water (halogenated aromatics can be more dense than water, as an haloalkanes)
  • insoluble in water and are commonly used as solvents for organic reactions

Alcohols & Phenols

 

 

Alcohol:  contains a hydroxyl group -OH attached to a carbon chain

Alcohols with 4 atoms are slightly soluble

Alcohols with 5 or more atoms are not soluble

 

Phenol: contains a hydroxyl group -OH attached to a benzene ring

Boiling Points

  • Oxygen has a partially negative charge
  • Hydrogen has a partially positive charge
  • Hydrogen bonds cannot form between Ether molecules because there are not any polar -OH groups
  • Alcohols have higher boiling points than Ethers of the same mass because alcohols require higher temperatures to provide sufficient energy to break many H bonds
  • The boiling points of ethers are similar to alkanes because neither can form hydrogen bonds

What are Steroisomers?
If alkenes have 2 different subsituents @ each end of the C=C then they can exist as stereoisomers because there is restricted rotation of the double bond
Addition Reaction

  • reactants add to the carbon atoms in double/triple bonds
  • a double/triple bond is easily, broken which makes them very reactive

What are the 4 addition reactions

Hydrogenation

Halogenation

Hydrohalogenation

Hydration

Hydrogenation

Alkene + H2  

Alkyne + 2H2

 

 

the atoms of a hydrogen halide add to the carbon atoms of a double/triple bond

Halogenatation

Alkene + Cl2(Br2)

Alkyne + 2Cl2(Br2)

 

Halogen atoms add to the carbon atoms of a double/triple bond

Hydrohalogenations
Alkene + HCl (HBr)

Hydration

 

Hydration & Halohydration are the only ones that use Mark’s rule

Alkene + H2O    product is alcohol

 

  • an acid (H+) catalyst is required
  • water (HOH) adds to a double bond
  • an H atom bonds to one C in the double C=C bond
  • an -OH bonds to the other C

                              H  H

                              |   |

C=C+H-OH > H+  -C-C

                                     H   OH

                                       |     |

CH3-CH=CH-CH3+H-OH > CH3-CH-CH-CH3

Substitution Reaction
a hydrogen atom on a benzene ring is replaced by an atom or group of atoms
Types of substitution H on benzene ring by:

Halogenation – Chlorine or Bromine atom

Nitration – Nitro group (-NO2)

Sulfonation – SO3H group

 

Nitration

-an H atom of benzene is replaced by a nitro (NO2) group from HNO3

-an acid catalyst such as H2SO4 is needed

 

 

Sulfonation

an H atom on benzene is replaced by a -SO3H group from SO3

-an catalyst such as H2SO4 is needed

 

benzensulfonic acid

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