Chemistry Trimester 2 Final Review

Amorphous solids
lack an ordered internal structure. Atoms are randomly arranged.
Allotropes
two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state.
Crystal (ionic solid)
the atoms, ions, or molecules that make up the solid substance are arranged in an orderly, repeating, 3D pattern (crystal lattice). The shape of the crystal reflects the arrangement of the particles within the solid.
Characteristics of solids
ordered structure, do not flow, have intermolecular forces of attraction
Characteristics of a liquid
lacks ordered structure, flows, has intermolecular forces of attraction
Regarding intermolecular forces: a gas is likely to have…
none.
Regarding intermolecular forces: a solid is likely to have…
some.
Regarding intermolecular forces: a liquid is likely to have…
some.
Dynamic equilibrium
when a reversable reaction ceases to change its ratio of reactants/products, but substances move between the chemicals at an equal rate.
Boiling point
when the vapor pressure and the atmospheric pressure are equal.
What is energy measured in?
Joules
What is mass measured in?
grams
Mass vs. energy
> mass = > energy
< mass = < energy
What is specific heat measured in?
(joules) over (grams times degrees Celsius)
Specific heat vs. energy
> specific heat = > energy
< specific heat = < energy
What do you measure temperature in?
Celsius or Kelvin
Condensation is what kind of process? (endothermic or exothermic)
Exothermic
Freezing is what kind of process? (endothermic or exothermic)
Exothermic
What is the relationship between pressure and volume?
> volume = < pressure
< volume = > pressure
What is Boyle’s law?
PV=PV (pressure & volume)
What is the relationship between temperature and volume?
> temperature = > volume
< temperature = < volume
What is Charles’ Law?
V/T=V/T (volume and temperature)
What is the relationship between temperature and pressure?
> temperature = > pressure
< temperature = < pressure
What is Gay-Lussac’s Law?
P/T=P/T (pressure and temperature)
What is the combined gas law?
PV/T=PV/T (pressure, volume, and temperature)
What is the ideal gas law?
PV/Tn=PV/Tn (pressure, volume, temperature, and MOLES)
When is a reaction spontaneous?
1. When heat is lost (exothermic) and there is an increase in entropy.
2. When the the amount of heat gained (endothermic) is smaller than the increase in entropy.
3. When the amount of heat lost (exothermic) is bigger than the decrease in entropy.
When is a reaction nonspontaneous?
1. When heat is gained (endothermic) and entropy decreases.
2. When the amount of heat gained (endothermic) is bigger than the increase in entropy.
3. When the amount of heat lost (exothermic) is smaller than the decrease in entropy.
What is entropy?
A measure of disorder.
What will ALWAYS increase the rate of a reaction?
Decreasing the particle size.
What will always increase the rate of which a solution is formed?
Increase in temperature.
What increases the rate at which a solution is formed?
Agitation.
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