Chemistry: Understanding Compounds

Bonds
an attachment between atoms

octet rule

atoms of nonmetals tend to form the most stable molecules when they are surrounded by eight electrons (to fill their valence orbitals)
ionic bond

a metal and a non-metal. 

when one atom accepts or donates one or more of it’s valence electrons to another atom.

Covalent bond

Covalent bond is a bond between two non-metals.

When atoms share valence electrons.;

Metallic Bond

A bond made by two metals.

When electrons are shared by two metallic atoms.

;

bond enthalpy
the power it takes to break apart a bond
bond length
the distance between two nuclei that are joined by a chemical bond
dipole
a molecule that’s electrically asymmetrical which makes them oppositely charged at two points.
surface-tension
the resistance of a liquid to an increase in it’s surface area.
polarity
a seperation of electric charge leading to a molecule or it’s chemical groups having an electric dipole.
cohesion
a process of when something sticks to itself.
adhesion
when something sticks to a different substance.
VSEPR

VALENCE SHELL ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION THEORY.

explains the shapes of simple ions and molecules. Pairs of electrons arrange themselves around the central atom so that they are as far apart from each other as possible. Pairs of electrons spread out because they are trying to minimize the repulsion (this is due to the Law of Electric Charges)

steric number
the number that helps VSEPR shape. The number of bonding sites off of a central atom. It determines the shape of the molecule.
Law of Electric Charges
explains that all magnetic objects have the tendency to repel or attract to one another. Like charges repel one another and unlike charges attract one another.
Resonance Structure
when a given molecule can have multiple lewis dot diagrams that function.
Binary Ionic Compound
any compound with two parts in it.
Stock System Name
IUPAC agrees upon the names of elements.
Classical Name
based off of greek/latin periodic table names.
Metal
A substance that conducts heat and electricity, is shiny and reflects many colors of light, and can be hammered into sheets or drawn into wire. Metals lose electrons easily to form cations*. About 80% of the known chemical elements are metals.
non-metal

A substance that conducts heat and electricity poorly, is brittle or waxy or gaseous, and cannot be hammered into sheets or drawn into wire. About 20% of the known chemical elements are nonmetals.


 

Metalloid

An element with both metallic and nonmetallic properties. Examples are silicon, arsenic, and germanium.

acids
a compound with H in front of it. it also needs to say (aq) because it is an aqueous solution.