Chemistry Unit 1

Chemical Property
property used to characterize materials in reactions that change their identity
Compound
substance resulting from the combination of two or more elements
Density
mass per unit volume
ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume,
Element
pure substance that cannot be changed into asimpler form of matter by any chemical reaction
Homogeneous Mixture (solution)
has uniform composition
Mass
a measure of the quanity of matter making up an object
Matter
Is anything that has mass and occupies space
1 liter (L) = _________Milliliters (ml)
1 liter (L) = 1000 Milliliters (ml
Mixtures
Two or more materials stirred together in which each substance retains its own idenity
Physical Change
any process involving a substance’s change from one state (gas, liquid, solid) to another without alteration of the chemical composition
Physical property
property used to characterize matter and energy and their interactions
pure Substance
1 type of substance definite composition cant be separated by physical processes
scientific Notation
Scientific notation is a way to represent numbers that are too large or too small to be written in the standard decimal notation.
atom
Weight or mass of a single atom-same as a atomic number
atomic number
weight or mass of a single atoms
Mass number
weight or mass of a single atom (the same as mass#, because most of the height of an atom is found in the electrons
Atomic mass
weight or mass of a single atom (the same as mass #, because most of the height of an atom is found in the electons etc.
alkaki metal
highly reactive metallic elements located in Group 1 of the periodic table
alkaline earth metals
the reactive metallic elements located in Group2 of the periodic table
anion
an ion with a negative charge
Cation
an ion with a positive charge
electron
tiny negatively charged subatomic particle moving around the nucleus of an atom
energy level
any of the possible energies an electron may have in an atom
group
a vertical column of elements in the periodic table
halogen
the highly reactive elements located in group 17 of the periodic table
ion
an atom or group of atoms that has lost or gained one or more electrons and therfore has a net electric charge
isotopes
any atoms haaving the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
metals
the elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity located on LEFT side of stair step
neutron
a neutral subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom
noble gas
the unreactive gaseous elements located in Group 18 of the periodic table
nonmetals
the elements that are usually poor conductors of heat and electricity
nucleus
the center of an atom
oribital
a region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons
period
a horzontal row of elements in the periodic table
proton
a positively charged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom
transition metals
the metallic elements located in groups 3-12 of the periodic table
valence electron
an electron in the outermost energy level of an atom
314.721
significant figures
6 significant figures
0.001775
significant figures
4 significant figures (place-holding zeroes are not significant
23.12
significant figures
4 significant figures
7.9303
significant figures
5 significant figures
63000
significant figures
2 significant numbers
mixing flour and sugar
physical
burning coal
chemical
digesting pizza
chemical
Bending a piece of wire
physical
cooking a steak
chemical
A snow flake melts
physical
Spreading butter
physical
cutting grass
physical
Physical or Chemical

spoiling milk

chemical
Physical or Chemical

salt dissolving in water

physical
0.0091
significant figures
2 significant numbers
20.02
significant figures
4 significant numbers zero’s between non 0 significant
200.740
significant figures
6 significant numbers
0.007
significant figures
1 significant number
39.0
significant figures
3 significant numbers
6051.00

significant figures

6 significant numbers
0.0005
significant figures
1 significant numbers
0.1020
significant figures
4 significant numbers
5000
significant figures
1significant numbers
0.020
significant figures
2 significant numbers
501
significant figures
3 significant numbers
0.001775
significant figures
4 significant figures place holding zero’s are not significant
7.9303
significant figures
5 significant numbers
63000
significant figures
2 significant numbers
0.0091
significant figures
2 significant numbers
significant figures
defined to be all the digits in a number representing data or results that are known with certainity plus one uncertain digit
electronegativity
is a measure of the ability of an atom to attract electons in a chemical bond. Elements with increase electro negativity have a greater ability to attract electrons
polar covalent bonds
is a perferred term for a bond made up of unequal shared electron pairs
covalent bond
sharing of electon pair of two atoms. Ex H2
chemical bond
is the force of attraction between any 2 atoms in a compound
ionic bond
transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another
monatomic ions
are ions consisting of a single atoms Ex: H , Na or K
Polyatomic ions
are composed of 2 or more atoms bonded together
Molecules
Are compunds characterized by covalent bonding
triple bond
In which three pairs of electrons are shared by 2 atoms is very stable
mass
measure of the quanity of matter
remains constant despite changes in temperature and pressure.
Equipment used is balance to determine mass
What are the diatomic molcules (name the diatomic 7)
consists of 2 atoms of the same element per molecule Hydrogen gas H2
subshell
where electrons move around
1 lbs=?oz
1 lb= 16 oz
1 mi = ? ft.
1 mi = 5280 ft.
1 in. = ? cm
1 in. = 2.54 cm
Electrons Move___the _____
Electrons Move around the nucleus
Electrons are ______charged
Electrons are negatively charged
Electrons are ____, but they cover a _____
Electrons are tiny , but they cover a lot of space
Electron occupy ______around the nucleus
Electron occupy shells around the nucleus
The nucleus is the _____of the atom
The nucleus is the center of the atom
Protons are ______charged
Protons are charged
Neutrons have ______charge
Neutrons have no charge
The nucleus has a _______charge
The nucleus has a positive charge
Physical or Chemical

freezing ice cream

physical
Physical or Chemical

boiling an egg

chemical reaction
Physical or Chemical
Decaying of food
chemical
physical change
a change that alters only the state or appearance of a substance but not its chemical composition
Mililiter
a unit of volume equal to 10-3 L or 1 cm3
solid
a state of matter in which atoms or molecules are packed close to one another in fixed locations with definite volume
chemistry
the science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules
temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules that compose a sample of matter
unit
standard quanities used to specifiy measurement
when drawing Lewis structures, a _____represents one of several possible formations of a molecule
resonance structure
Bond Angle
a single atom with a positive or negative charge
linear
for a simple molecule, consisting of only two atoms, what is the only shape possible
the octet rule
bonds are formed by sharing or transfering electrons in order to become like a noble gas according to
VSEPR
the geometry around a centeral atom is due to the repulsion of electron pairs according
Polyatomic Ions
group of covalently bonded atoms
Single bond
Covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms
Resonance
refers to bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctely represented by a single Lewis Structure
valence electrons
the electons in the outermost level are called valence electrons the valence electon will determine
metalloids
mostly brittle solids that have properteries of both metals and nonmetals Located around/on stair step on periodic chart
Percent yield formula
measured value X 100
Theoretical value
significant number rules
all non zero numers are significant
a zero between two non zero digits is certain and considered significantExample 10101 (5 significant)
a trailing zero to nonzero digits and a decimal is significant Example: 4.50 (3 sig #)
What is KUPS process to problem solve
Known
Unknown
Plan Solve
1 KILOGRAM (kg) = ________g
1 KILOGRAM (kg) = 1000g
1 gram (g) = _________milligrams (mg)
1 gram (g) = 1000 milligrams (mg)
1 mg = _______micrograms (Mcg)
1 mg = 1000 micrograms (Mcg)
1 L = ______cubic centimeter or centimeter cubed (cm3)
1 L = 1000 cubic centimeter or centimeter cubed (cm3)
1 ml = ___cm3
1 ml = 1cm3
1 ml = ___microliters
1 ml = 1000 microliters
Examples of chemical change
forms a solid
Examples of physical change
grind
3 major categories to periodic table
metals (located on left side of stair step)
metalloids (semiconductors)Located on or around stair step
Nonmetals (located on right side of stair step
List metalloids
B
List Groups (family ) on periodic chart

Groups are verticle columns

1A-Alkali metals -very reactive to air
IIA- alkaline earth metals -fairly reactive with air/water
IIIA (metalloid)
VA- (nonmetal)
VIA (nonmetal)
VIIA- (nonmetals) elemental halogens very reactive with metals
VIIIA- inert or noble gases
Periods are Horizonal rows of periodic table
what are 4-7 in the B group called?
period 6-7 outplaced group are called?
what are 4-7 in the B group called? transitional metals
period 6-7 outplaced group are called? inner transitional metals
Prefix/ Number of atoms?

mono-

mono- 1 atom
Prefix/ Number of atoms?

di-

di- 2 atoms
Prefix/ Number of atoms?

tri-

tri- 3 atoms
Prefix/ Number of atoms?

tetra-

tetra – 4 atoms
Prefix/ Number of atoms?

penta-

penta- 5 atoms
Prefix/ Number of atoms?

hexa

hexa- 6 atoms
Prefix/ Number of atoms?

hepta

hepta- 7 atoms
Prefix/ Number of atoms?

octa-

octa- 8 atoms
Prefix/ Number of atoms?

nona

nona- 9 atoms
Prefix/ Number of atoms?

deca-

deca- 10 atoms
bond pair
an electron pair shared between 2 atoms
lone pair-
an electron pair that is not shared between two atoms
molecular geometry
the general shape of a molecule as determined by the relative positions of the atomic model
trigonal planar
three electon pairs
(1) H
Hydrogen
(2) He
Helium
(3) Li
Lithum
(4) Be
Beryllium
(5) B
Boron
(6) C
Carbon
(7) N
Nitrogen
(8) O
Oxygen
(9) F
Fluorine
(10) Ne
Neon
(11) Na
Sodium
(12) Mg
Magnesium
(13) Al
Aluminum
(14) Si
Silicon
(15) P
Phosphorus
(16) S
Sulfur
(17) CL
Chlorine
(18) Ar
Argon
(19) K
Potassium
(20) Ca
Calcium
(21) Sc
Scandium
(22) Ti
Titanium
(23) V
Vanadium
(24) Cr
Chromium
(25) Mn
Manganese
(26) Fe
Iron
(27) Co
Cobalt
(28) Ni
Nickel
(29) Cu
Copper
(30) Zn
Zinc
(31) Ga
Gallium
(32) Ge
Germanium
(33) As
Arsenic
(34) Se
Selenium
(35) Br
Bromine
(36) Kr
Krypton