Chemistry Unit 1 Notes

Chemistry
The science that investigates and explains the structure and properties of matter.
Matter
Anything that takes up space and has mass.

(Heat & light are examples of things that are not made up of matter)

Properties
Describe the characteristics and behaviour of matter, including the changes that matter undergoes.
Scientific Model
A thinking device that helps you understand and explain macroscopic observations.
Qualitative observation
One that can be made without measurement.
Quantitative observation
One that can be made WITH measurement.
Substance
Matter with the same fixed composition and properties.
Mixture
A combination of two or more substances in which the basic identity of each substance is not changed.
Physical Change
A change in matter that does not involve a change in identity of the substance.

exp. freezing, melting, evaporating, dissolving, and crystallising.

Physical Properties
Characteristics of a sample of matter that can be observed or measured without any change in its identity.

exp. solubility, melting point, boiling point, color, density, electrical conductivity, and physical state (solid, liquid, gas)

Heterogenous Mixture
‘Hetero’: different. One that does not have a uniform composition and in which the individual substances remain distinct.

(sand and water, orange juice and a piece of granite)

Homogenous Mixture
Homogeneous mixtures are the same throughout.

(sand and sugar)

Solution
Another name for a homogeneous mixture.
What is the difference between a solute and solvent?
Solute-the substance being disolved, the substance that dissolves the solute is solvent. (solvent=water) (solute=salt)
Soft drinks, tea, contact-lens cleaners, and other cleaning liquids are examples of?
Aqueous solution. When the solvent is water.
Elements
The simplest form of matter
Compound
A chemical combination of two or more different elements joined together. (Sodium Hydroxide, Carbon Dioxide)
Formula
A combination of the chemical symbols that show what elements make up a compound and the number of atoms of each element.
Volatile
They change to a gas easily at room temperature.

(Alcohol, gasoline)

Density
The amount of matter (mass) contained in a unit of volume.
Chemical Change
The change of one or more substances into other substances.
Chemical Properties
Only observed when there is a change in composition of the substance.
What is the law of conservation of mass?
In a chemical change, matter is neither created nor destroyed.
Energy
Is the capacity to do work
Which philosopher proposed that the world is made of atoms?
Democritus
Atoms
The smallest particle of matter
What is the atomic theory of matter?
The idea that matter is made of fundamental particles called atoms
What is sublimation?
A change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid. exp. dry ice
What is evaporation?
The conversion of liquid into gas using heat energy.
What is decantation?
The process of separating mixtures.
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