Chemistry Unit 2

Acid Base (neutralization reaction)
Based on the gain or loss of hydrogen ions from one reactant (acid) to another reactant (base) to produce water and a salt in solution; type of double replacement reaction
Basic form: HA + BOH –>BA + H20
combustion reactions
A certain substance (hydrocarbon or inorganic) reacting with oxygen to produce new products and release of energy, type of reduction-oxdidation reaction
Basic formula:
(CxHy) + O2(g)–>CO2(g) + H2O(g)
molecular mass
describe the sum of the relative masses of all the atoms in a molecular (covalent -bonded compunds)
avogandro’s number
the number of particles in 1 mol; equals 6.0223 X 1023 mol
Molar mass
the mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance
mole
the s1 base unit that describes the amount of a substance
hydrogen bonding
special type dipole-dipole (stronger than regular); between hydrogen and “highly electronegative elements” (usually F,N,O) larger molecule= high boiling point
London Dispersion Forces
occurs between nonpolar molecules, size of molecule and strength of force are directionally portional (larger molecule = higher boiling point)
surface tension
resistance of liquid to increase increase its surface area; large intermolecular forces=high surface tension
vapor pressure of liquid
ability of molecules to enter vapor stage
melting point
point where the liquid and solid have identical vapor pressures
sublimation
process by which molecules of a solid becomes gaseous without passing through the liquid state
solubility
the ability to dissolve
precipitate
a reaction in which an insoluble substance forms and seperates from the solution
dipole-dipole bonding
occurs between polar molecules; (+) end of 1 molecule is attracted to the (-) end of another molecule; 1-2% of the strength of an ionic bond, larger molecule=higher boiling point
Normal boiling point
temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the normal atomspheric pressure
idea gas law
the state of an amount of gass is determined by its pressure, volume and temperature.
thus PV=nRtp=pressure
v=volume
n=#of moles
r=is the gas constant
t=temperature in kelvins
miscible
if 2 liquids dissolve in each others in all proportions
immiscible
when 2 liquids are insoluble in one another
molarity
the number of moles of a solute dissolved in one liter of solution
supersaturated solution
contains more solute than it can theoretically hold at a given temperature
unsaturated solution
a solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution at a given temperature and pressure
saturated solution
contains the maximum amount of solute for a given quanity of solvent at a constant temperature and pressure
aqueous solution
water that contains dissolved substances
solute
dissolved particles in a solution
solvation
the process by which the positive and negative ions of an ionic solid become surrounded by solvent molecules
solvent
the dissolving medium in a solution
avagadro’s number
6.02X 10 to 23
standard temperature and pressure (stp)
means a temperature of 0 degrees celsius and a pressure of 101.3kPA or 1 atomoshpere (atm)
balanced chemical equation
a chemical equation in which mass is conserved; each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element
combination (synthesis) reaction
a chemical change in which 2 or more substances react to form a single new substance; also called a synthesis reaction
decomposition reaction
a chemical change in which a single compound is broken into 2 or more simplier products
single replacement reaction
a chemical change in which a single compound is broken down into two or more simplier products
reactant
a substance present at the start of a reaction
product
a substance produced in a chemical equation
net ionic equation
an equation for a reaction in solution showing only those particles that are directly involved in a chemical change
atomospheric pressure
results from the collisions of atoms and molecules in air with objects
evaporation
the conversion of a liquid to a gas on the surface of a none boiling point
kinetic energy
the energy an object has because of its motion
kinetic molecular theory
all matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant motion. The particles in a gasare usually molecules or atoms. applies to fundamental assumptions about gases
endothermic process
absorbs heat from its surroundings
exothermic process
releases heat from its surroundings
miscible
if 2 liquids dissolve in each other in all proportions
stoichiometry
calculations of quanties of products and reactants based on a balanced chemical equation
complete ionic equation
an equation written with all soluble strong electrolytes shown as ions
concentration
the designated amount of solute dissolved in a given quanity of solvent or quantity of solution
pressure
conveys the idea of a force, a push that tends to ove something in a given direction. P is a force that acts on a given area (P=F/A)