Chemistry Unit 4

aliphatic hydrocarbon
Contain only carbon and hydrogen and can be divided into 4 families: alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes and alkynes
alkane
saturated hydrocarbons because they contain only carbon and hydrogen and have only carbon-to-hydrogen and carbon -to-carbon single bonds Example: ethane CH3CH3
alkyl halide
a substituted hydrocarbon with thegeneral structure R-X, in which R-represents any alkyl group and X=a halogen (F-, Cl-, Br- or I-)
polymer
are macromolecules composed of repeating structural units called monomers
combustion
the oxidation of hydrocarbons by burning in the presence of air to produce carbon dioxide and water
hydrocarbons
Contain a carbon and hydrogen
saturated hydrocarbon
no carbon to carbon multiple bonds (alkane)
alkyl group
are alkanes with one fewer hydrogen atoms
Example: methyl; ethyl; propyl; butyl; pentyl
Primary carbon
is directly bonded to one other carbon
Secondary carbon
is bonded to two other carbon atoms
teriary carbon
is bonded to three other carbon atoms
quaternary carbon
is bonded to four other carbon atoms
IUPAC nomenclature
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry is responsible for establishing and maintaining a standard, universal system for naming organic compounds
condensed structural formula
a structural formula showing all of the atoms in a molecule and placing them in a sequential arrangement that details which atoms are bonded to each other; the bonds themselves are not shown
conformations
discrete, distinct isomeric structures that may be converted, one to the other, by rotation about the bonds in the molecule
constitutional isomers
two molecules having the same molecular formulas, but different chemical structures
cycloalkane
a cyclic alkane; a saturated hydrocarbon that has the general formula CnH2n
cis-trans isomers
isomers that differ from one another in the placement of substituents on a double bond or ring
functional group
an atom (or group of atoms and their bonds) that imparts specific chemical or physical properties to a molecule
geometric isomers
an isomer that differs from another isomer in the placement of substituents on a double bond or ring
halogenation
a reaction in which one of the C–H bonds of a hydrocarbon is replaced with a C–X bond (X=Br or Cl generally)
molecular formula
a formula that provides the atoms and number of each type of atom in a molecule but gives no information regarding the bonding pattern involved in the structure of the molecule
alkene
a hydrocarbon that contains one or more carbon-carbon double bonds ; an unsaturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH2n
aromatic hydrocarbon
an organic compound that contains the benzene ring or a derivative of the benzene ring
geometric isomer
an isomer that differs from another isomer in the placement of substituents on a double bond or a ring
halogenation
a reaction in which one of the C–H bonds of a hydrocarbon is replaced with a C–X bond (X=Br or Cl generally)
hydration
a reaction inwhich water is added to a molecule,e.g., the addition of water to an alkene to form an alcohol
hydrogenation
a reaction in which hydrogen (H2) is added to a double or triple bond
Markovnikov’s rule
the rule stating that a hydrogen atom, adding to a carbon-carbon double bond, will add to the carbon having the larger number of hydrogens attached to it.
phenyl group
a benzene ring that has had a hydrogen atom removed C6H5–
unsaturated hydrocarbon
a hydrocarbon containing at least one multiple (double or triple) bond