Chemistry Unit 5

Alochol
An organic coumpound that contains a hydroxyl group (–OH) attached to an alkyl group
dehyration
a reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule, in this casethe loss of water from an alochol and the simulataneous formation of an alkene
disulfide
an organic compund that contains a disulfide group (–S–S–)
elimination reaction
a reaction in which a molecule loses atoms or ions from its structure
hydration
a reaction in which water is added to a molecule, e.g. the addition of the water to the alkene to form an alochol
hydroxl group
the –OH functional group that is characteristic of alochols
oxidation
a loss of electrons in organic compounds it may be recognized as a loss of hydrogen atoms or the gain of oxygen
phenol
an organic compound that contains a hydroxyl group (–OH) attached to a benzene ring
primary alochol
an alocol with the general formula RCH2OH
reduction
the gain of electrons; in organic compounds it may be recognized by the gain of a hydrogen or loss of a oxygen
secondary alochol
an alochol with the general formula R2CHOH
tertiary alochol
an alochol with the general formula R3COH
thiol
an organic compound that contains a thiol group (–SH)
acetal
addition reaction
a reaction in which two molecules add together to form a new molecule; often involves the addition of one molecule to a double or triple bond in an unsaturated molecule ; e.g. the addtion of alocol to a aldehyde or ketone to form a hemiacetal or hemiketal
aldehyde
carbonyl group
the functional group that contains a carbon-oxygen double bond:–C=O; the functional group found in aldehydes and ketones
hemiacetal ***
the family of organic coumpounds formed via the reaction of one molecule of alochol with an aldehyde in the presence of an acid catalyst; hemiacetals have the following structure: *****
hydrogenation
a reaction in which hydrogen (H2) is added to a double or triple bond
ketone ****
a family of organic molecules characterized by a carbonyl group, the carbonyl carbon is bonded to two alkyl groups, two aryl groups, or one alkyl and one aryl group;ketones have the following general structures
oxidation
a loss of electrons; in organic compounds it may be recognized as a loss of hydrogen atoms or the gain of oxygen
acetyl coenzyme A
amolecule composed of coenzyme A and an acetyl group; the intermediate that provides acetyl groups for complete oxidation by areobic respiration
adenosine triphosphate
a nucleotide composed of the purine adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphoryl groups; the primary energy storage and transport molecule used by the cells in cellular metabolism
carboxyl group
the –COOH functional group; the functional group found in carboxylic acids
carbonxylic acid
a member of the family or organic compounds that contain –COOH functional group
ester
a organic compund that contains two alkyl and /or aryl groups attached to an oxygen atom; R–O–R, Ar–O–R, and Ar–O–Ar
fatty acid
any member of the family of continous -chain carboxylic acids that generally contain four to twenty carbon atoms; the most concentrated source of energy used by the cell
hydrolysis
a chemical change that involves the reaction of a molecule with water; the process by which molecules are broken into their constituents by addition of water
oxidation
a loss of electrons; in organic compunds it may be recognized as a loss of hydrogen atoms or the gain of oxygen
saponification
a reaction in which a soap is produced; more generally, the hydrolysis of an ester by an aqueous solution
soap
any of a variety of the alkali metal salts of fatty acids
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